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SUMMARY IN fall 2014, enterovirus D68 cases of severe respiratory or neurological disease were reported in countries around the world. EV-D68 testing among primary care patients increased from 0. 4 percent to 0. 8 percent. Those strains were genetically identical to those found in the United States in 2014 and 2015.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0950268817000590
Background: A widespread North American outbreak of enterovirus D68 was discovered in August 2014, causing severe respiratory diseases in children as well as a possible link to acute flaccid lysis. During the North American epidemic in the fall of 2014, we will compare children positive and negative for EV-D68 presenting to a community hospital during the North American epidemic. Methods: EV-D68 was measured on a consistent basis by a children presenting to a large community hospital with respiratory difficulties in the fall of 2014. To determine the clinical and outcome characteristics of EV-D68 positive and EV-D68 negative children, we conducted a test-negative case-control study. In the first week of testing, six of the nine identified cases of EV-D68 were identified. Conclusion: This report, which was based on a community hospital experience in the fall of 2014, reveals a series of mild illnesses in both EV-D68 positive and negative children.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3138/jammi.3.1.03
With 1,152 cases reported mostly in hospitalized children with severe asthma or bronchiolitis, the United States experienced a national outbreak of enterovirus D68 disease in 2014. In 2014, the United States experienced a national outbreak of enterovirus D68 disease, with 1,152 people identifying the majority in hospitalized children with severe asthma or bronchiolitis. According to the overall EV-D68 positivity percentages in respiratory samples, the percentages of hospitalized children and adults were between 5% and 1. 1%. Of 173 children with EV-D68 infection alone, the most common signs were asthma and bronchiolitis. Although there was no increase in severe respiratory tract infections reported to the French public health officials, 10. 7% of the EV-D68 infected children and 14. 3% of the EV-D68 infected adults were hospitalized in intensive care units, with 10. 7% of the EV-D68 infected adults. Phylogenetic examination of 179 EV-D68 sequences revealed that 117 sequences, including those of the case of AFP, belonged to the B2 type of clade B viruses, including one of AFP. EV-D68 infections are constantly monitored, and they may be able to benefit from existing influenza-like disease and EV surveillance networks.
Enterovirus D68-48 worldwide outbreaks in 2014 and 2016 have caused significant respiratory and neurological disorders. Clusters in subclade B3 appeared in the United States and Europe in 2016, but some of them had deeper roots connected to Asian strains, while others in A2 traced back to strains identified in East Asia in 2015-2016. Both 2018 A2 strains in the BC- and DE-loops had novel patterns in the putative neutralizing epitopes, showing steady trends in both antigenic evolution and all 2018 A2 strains have new patterns. On the continent, the pattern in the BC-loop of the USA B3 subgroup had not been detected before. Patients with EV-D68 in subclade A2 were significantly older than those with a B3 subclade virus. Pandemic preparedness in the future is vital to understanding evolution and immunity against various viral pathogens, including EV-D68 and SARS-CoV-2.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1010515
Abstract Background EV-D68 infection-related acute flaccid paralysis has drew a lot of attention since the outbreak in the United States in 2014 has drew widespread bacterial flaccid paralysis. EV-D68 was first detected in China in 2018 from a child with acute flaccid paralysis for the first time. Methods Based on a multicentre research identifying infectious pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract disease in children in China from May 2017 to December 2019, ten EV-D68 positive specimens were found from 3071 samples. Conclusions These ten patients were found with mild disease and no physical signs and signs. All ten sequences obtained sequences belong to subclade B3 which circulates largely at present, around the world, and has a strong association with strains related to AFP in the United States, according to phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions In conclusion, EV-D68 infection was found in a small number of children in China with acute lower respiratory tract infections from 2017 to 2019.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1401303/v1
Two luciferase reporter gene identified the transcription level of EV-D68 mRNA by RT-qPCR and viral 5u2019UTR-mediated translation. Endogenous ADAR1 decreased VP1 protein expression and viral titers, while overexpression of ADAR1p110 but not ADAR1p150 promoted virus replication. ADAR1p110 uninhibitedly lost its pro-viral ability after mutating the key sites in the deaminase domain, according to 5u2019-UTR sequencing of the viral genome, and EV-D68 RNA editing indicates that ADAR1p110 appears to have an active role in EV-D68 RNA editing. In dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, attenuated translation activity of viral genome 5u2019-UTR was also shown. At last, deletion of ADAR1p110 dsRBDs raised PKR phosphorylation, which leads to a reduced level of VP1 expression, indicating that the promotion of EV-D68 replication by ADAR1p110 is also responsible for PKR inhibition by its two stranded RNA binding domains.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1718235/v1
Bee bread is made from bee pollen and is fermented and stored in the hive. Few studies have investigated bee bread's antimicrobial activity against major bacterial pathogens and fungi. In vitro antiviral activity against Enterovirus D68 was determined by 18 Greek bee bread and two pollen samples from various botanical sources and geographical locations. Our results show that Greek bee bread and bee pollen tested in a vivacious antiviral role against EV-D68, with IC50 values ranging from 0. 48 to 5. 45 mg/ml.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.55251/jmbfs.4859
Enterovirus D68 is the first of a series of enteroviruses to have a single positive-sense RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral capid. EV-D68 is primarily responsible for respiratory infections and is acid-labile, similar to common cold viruses. It is unknown how the acid-sensitive EV-D68 virions uncoat and assemble their genome into a host cell, according to a unknown molecular system. These structures demonstrated that acid treatment of EV-D68 results in particle expansion, extrusion of the viral protein VP1 N termini from the capsid interior, and the emergence of pores around the icosahedral twofold axes, which can allow the viral RNA to escape. Also, the E1 particle acts as an intermediary in the transition from full native virions to A particles. Together, the present study outlines the route of EV-D68 uncoating and provides the molecular basis for EV-D68 and the related common cold viruses' acid lability.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1803347115
Significance Enterovirus D68 is an emerging pathogen that has caused a large outbreak of severe respiratory disease in the United States and has been linked to cases of paralysis. Our results are vital in learning about EV-D68's tropism and pathogenesis, as well as the possibility of using Sia-targeting inhibitors to treat EV-D68 infections.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1524498113
Entovirus-D68 samples from outpatients with influenza-like disease in three Canadian provinces participating in a community-based sentinel surveillance network were prospectively tested for enterovirus-D68 from 1 August to 31 July 2014, compared to specimens from 1 October 2013 to 31 July 2014 and compared to specimens obtained from 1 October 2013 to 31 July 2014. All inpatient and outpatient EV-D68 cases detected at the BC provincial reference laboratory from 28 August to 31 December 2014 were also observed by enhanced passive surveillance, according to the BC provincial reference laboratory. Active surveillance in outpatient and inpatient settings is needed from more locations and new seasons to enable EV-D68 epidemiology and potential at-risk groups for severe or unusual signs.
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