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Autism spectrum disorder is a condition that occurs early in childhood development, is variable in severity, and is characterized by a lack of social skills, communication difficulties, and repetitive habits. People with ASD are also at risk of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders. People with ASD have an impaired ability to communicate with others; they are often more comfortable handling objects as a child. Inability to recognize and use these cues makes it difficult for affected individuals to comprehend others's feelings or to express their own emotions in a timely manner. People with ASD tend to be rigid about their established routines and can usually avoid disruptions such as change in schedule. The majority of people with ASD have mild to moderate intellectual impairment, with others having average to above-average intelligence. Some people with ASD do not speak at all, while others use language in a stride. However, fluent speakers with ASD have difficulties with verbal communication. For example, autistic disorder was a term that was used when affected individuals had limited or absent verbal contact, often in conjunction with intellectual disability. According to Asperger syndrome, the condition was once limited to people of average or above-average intelligence who were not delayed in their language development. Many affected individuals fall outside of the narrower diagnostic criterias, and their academic and communication skills may change over time.
Seasonal affective disorder is a health condition exacerbated by the change of the seasons. Chronic sadness and a general lack of interest are characterized by prolonged sadness and a general lack of concern, while bipolar disorder is characterized by repetitive depressive episodes alternating with periods of abnormally high energy and activity. Only during specific months of the year, people with seasonal affective disorder have signs and symptoms of either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Among people with seasonal affective disorder, major depressive disorder is more common than bipolar disorder. The signs and symptoms that characterize depressive episodes in people with seasonal affective disorder include a loss of interest or enjoyment in sports, a decrease in energy, a depressed mood, and low self-confidence. During the spring and summer months, affected individuals with underlying bipolar disorder have alternating episodes of depression in the fall and winter months and mania in the spring and summer months. The condition has the opposite seasonal pattern, with peaking in the spring and summer months and ending during the fall and winter months in around ten percent of people with seasonal affective disorder. About 40% of people with seasonal affective disorder, depressive episodes persist after winter and do not decrease in the summer months, resulting in a change in diagnosis to either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Individuals with seasonal affective disorder also suffer from another psychiatric disorder, an eating disorder, anxiety disorder, or panic disorder.
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