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DISPERSAL - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 16 November 2022

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Bumblebees are more efficient than honeybees to facilitate wind-blown pollen dispersal of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

An investigation of the pollinator's visiting habits on a crop and the determining factors on gene flow may help reduce gene flow risk and develop gene flow limits. This research was designed to determine and compare the difference between alfalfa pollen cloud density resulting from the two specific bee species, honeybees and bumblebees, and their indirect impacts on wind-blown pollen dispersal under turbulent or non-turbulent weather conditions. No alfa pollen collected from the source in the absence of insects was found in this survey, according to this report, pollen collection using rotorod pollen collectors under caged or uncaged alfalfa plots. Although worker bees of bumblebees were less abundant than honeybees, they nevertheless produced a significantly higher alfa pollen cloud density than honeybees, which was closely linked to the increased number of tripped flowers by bumblebees relative to honeybees. Although the wind-blown alfalfa pollen density decreased in tandem with the distance between the two bee species, the pollen density produced by bumblebees at the same distance from the pollen source was higher than honeybees' values. The developed model estimated that alfa pollen cloud density at 31. 6 meters from the source edge, providing the reference value to determine the wind-blown pollen dispersal and create isolation distance.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/IND607920968


Velocity of the falling dispersal units in Zelkova abelicea: remarkable evolutionary conservation within the relict tree genus

Zelkova's mature fruits fall with the entire twig, and the dried leaves that are still attached function as a dragu2010 improving appendage, transporting the fruit away from the parent tree, extending the fruits away from the tree. METHODS: Drop tests of dispersal units and individual fruits of Z. abelicea were carried out under controlled conditions to determine their dispersal rate and determine their flight mode. RESULTS: Zelkova abelicea uses both slowly sinking dispersal units with chaotic motion as well as fast falling individual fruit using a straight path. Z. abelicea dispersal units's decreasing speed is practically identical to that of the East Asiatic Z. serrata. The genus Zelkova's dispersal capacity is less effective than that of other wind dispersed trees, and it appears that it was more effective for short-duration ecological propagation than long-distance biogeographical dispersal, not long-distance biogeographical dispersal.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/IND607864279


The Hydrophobin Gene Family Confers a Fitness Trade-off between Spore Dispersal and Host Colonization in Penicillium expansum.

We developed seven single mutants and a septuple-deletion mutant of the entire putative P. expansum hydrophobin gene family in order to determine the functions of hydrophobins in this fungus's biology and virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus spore hydrophobin RodA, a 72. 5 percent sequence similarity to the Aspergillus spore hydrophobin RodA, which was responsible for effective spore dispersion in the P. expansum. spore dispersal in the u0394 sep mutant, which was hypothesized to be due to the spore dispersal's unusual shape and clumping of the u0394 sep conidia and conidiophores, which was also reduced in spore dispersal. All seven putative hydrophobin genes were deleted from Penicillium expansum, the causative agent of blue mold disease in pome fruit, and the mutant was tested for numerous physical characteristics and fruit virulence. In P. expansum, our results show that this gene family exemplifies a functional trade-off between dispersal and host colonization.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36374077


Animal seed dispersal recovery during passive restoration in a forested landscape.

Therefore, changes in seed dispersal during forest restoration can indicate species interactions' recovery, and yet these changes are rarely considered in forest restoration planning. We investigated shifts in the importance of different seed dispersal techniques during passive restoration in a tropical chronosequence of more than 100 years by quantifying the percentage of trees dispersed by bats, small birds, large birds, flightless mammals, and abiotic means as a result of forest age in this report. Small birds' seed dispersal decreased over time during regeneration, but bat dispersal played a minor part in many facets of succession. This paper is part of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration's topic 'Understanding forest landscape restoration: reinforcing scientific bases for the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. '.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36373921


Dispersal potential does not predict recent range expansions of sub-Antarctic plant species

Both fine- and broad scales are dispersal of plant ecology's key aspects of plant ecology. Our findings reveal the wide range of dispersal potential in the island's flora, and represent the first quantification of the dispersal sensitivity of the dominant vascular flora in the sub-Antarctic. Dispersal potential was not linked to range expansion rates of native or alien species, implying that other mechanisms are responsible for the variation observed in species range expansion rates.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR570316


High dispersal rates in hybrids drive expansion of maladaptive hybridization.

In a large and connected river system, we determine when non-native genetic introgression promotes reproductive dispersal by using a human-mediated hybrid zone between native cutthroat trout and invasive rainbow trout. Younger rainbow trout with mainly non-native rainbow trout ancestry were more likely to migrate as juveniles and to stray as adults. Overall, hybrids with greater than half rainbow trout ancestry were 5. 7 times more likely to disperse than native or hybrid trout with small amounts of rainbow trout ancestry. Native wildlife can be harmed by invasive hybridization's detrimental effects on native wildlife, with management steps that reduce the likelihood of hybrid dispersal.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36350203


Predator dispersal influences predator distribution but not prey diversity in pitcher plant microbial metacommunities.

Hence, differences in predator dispersal ability that influence their spatial distribution may also have a bearing on prey populations. Here, we use the microbial communities within pitcher plant leaves as a model system to determine the association between predator dispersal ability and dissemination, as well as its effects on prey diversity and composition. We hypothesized that limited predator dispersal findings in clustered distributions and heterogeneous patches for prey species, were likely to be limited, while widespread predator dispersal and distribution may homogenize prey metacommunities. In a field experiment, we investigated protozoan colonists and documented protozoan recruitment and bacterial diversity in target leaves. If clustered predators were specialists or keystone hunters, or if they had a dominant presence on other predators in top-down managed systems, clustered predators could be effective triggers of prey populations. A more comprehensive review of trophic metacommunities may be able to link dispersal ability within trophic scales and its effects on trophic dynamics.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36335567


Drivers of dispersal and diversification in bromeliads

The evolution of berry fruits raised dispersal capacity and diversification rates, according to our estimates, while climatic factors contributed to increased dispersal capacity and diversification rates. We created a time-calibrated phylogeny with 1,268 species of bromeliads and integrated that evolutionary framework with distribution, habitat, and morphological trait information to learn the effects of fruit and habitat traits on evolutionary dynamics. We developed a time-calibrated phylogeny that included 1,268 species of bromeliads and integrated that evolutionary framework with distribution, habitat, and morphological trait data in order to determine the effect of fruit and habitat traits on evolutionary evolution of fruit and We also found a strong connection between diversification rates and both elevation and forest canopy heights. We show that dispersal capacity is not related to fruit morphology and covaries with forest canopy height and mean annual temperature.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR567066

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions