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Due to their affordability to obtain the same, Indian farmers are also negligible when it comes to the use of personal protective equipment. Very little research has been done to develop an exposure assessment technique based on dermal penetration of pesticide residues in dermal penetration of pesticide residues. A field investigation was conducted in Rangareddy district, Telangana, Southern India, to determine the dermal exposure based on dosimeter and hand washing methods, helping quantify pesticide residues through dermal exposure along with detailed field observations and pesticide control strategies. The potential dermal exposure values varied from 0. 15 to 13. 45 bcg, with a decrease observed in exposure levels as real dermal exposure values varied from 0 to 0. 629 bcg. The results of the present research confirm the increased use of organophosphate pesticides among operators, as well as those that emphasize dermal exposure mitigation.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.957774
An important risk factor is increased health risk due to diemal exposure to chemicals derived from object surface contact. The micro-surfaces of rubbing fabrics used in the development of phthalates in a greater amount than U-shape fabrics with a similar surface roughness. The estimated transfer rate of bis ester obtained from rubbing friction on the pad surface over 8 h was higher than that for gas-phase emission and sweat transfer. These results showed that dermal frictional contact with pad product's surface was a critical exposure route.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c00640
After exposure to a high dose of the drug, a mathematical method was developed to investigate the skin penetration of volatile organic compounds. In the first stage, Series solutions were designed for the percutaneous VOC content, absorption, and evaporation. After the compound dissipated from the stratum corneum's surface, a layer of Laplace transform techniques yielded transient profiles. The rise in the flow rate reduced the total amount of VOC absorbed and reduced the time it took for the surface fluid to disappear, which reduced the time required for the surface fluid to evaporate.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2022.108889
At 2000 parts-per-billion, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration had set an interim limit for benzene in alcohol-based hand sanitizers at 2000 parts-per-billion. In 31%, 25%, and 32 percent of the samples tested at mean concentrations of 395, 164, and 61. 3 ng/g, respectively, benzene, toluene, and styrene were found in 31%, 25 percent, and 32 percent, respectively. In 5% of the samples, representing 9 brands, benzene was found at concentrations > 2000 ng/g. In the 200 hand sanitizers tested, the mean potential dermal exposure doses to benzene were higher than those for toluene and styrene. The estimated cancer risk in children/teenagers and adults from hand sanitizer use was higher than the one-in-a-million risk benchmark for 10% and 9%, respectively. This is the first study to determine both the concentrations and exposure risks of benzene, toluene, and styrene found in hand sanitizers, to the best of our knowledge.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107449
In handwipes and their associated urinary metabolites, positive correlations were discovered, although no significant correlation was observed for DEHP. Our report found that dermal absorption is a non-negligible exposure pathway for phthalates, to which children are particularly vulnerable because the role of dermal uptake to internal exposure of phthalates in children was higher in children than adults.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129639
Wild birds and mammals that live in agricultural habitats can be exposed to pesticides in a variety of ways. The European Food Safety Authority recently released a statement saying that the new EFSA risk assessment tool for birds and mammals does not adequately protect bats. We take a closer look at the EFSA's statement and assumptions regarding direct and indirect exposure of bats to pesticides in terms of their realism and the potential effects on risk assessment findings. We showed that the dermal exposure models in the EFSA bat report showed bats had more residues for bats than those tested for other flying insects with greater surface area to volume ratios, and therefore would have the reverse relationship. Bats are also extremely large, with bats carrying a substantial volume of spray liquid that exceeds their body mass several folds. We also showed that the amounts of spray liquid needed to achieve the predicted dermal exposures of bats are illogical, with bats carrying a high proportion of spray liquid that exceeds their body weight. It is recommended that a bat risk assessment framework be based on scientific, proven science, allowing funds to be focusing on those scenarios that are not currently covered by the existing bird and mammal framework. According, a quantitative risk assessment scheme should not be implemented until the numerous scientific uncertainties surrounding the EFSA bat statement are addressed.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5438
PAH concentrations in the skin wipe samples varied from 18 to 27000 ng/m2 in the order of face > hand > shank, regardless of age and gender. The PAH levels in females were significantly higher than in males than in males, but no significant differences were observed between genders in clothing-covered skin locations. Compared to other groups, the PAH levels for faces in the elderly were noticeably higher in the elderly. In all age groups except for the middle-aged group, the dermal exposure levels of total PAHs were significantly higher in females than in males. The risk factors associated with dermal PAH exposure varied between 3. 5 %10-6 and 1. 4 u00d7 10-3, with 29% of the population having risk values exceeding dangerous thresholds. Among all groups of the population, the threshold group had the greatest danger for PAH dermal exposure.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119802
Following the application of drug products to human skin, the current report details the design of a multiphase, multilayer mechanistic dermal absorption system within Simcyp Simulator capable of simulating uptake and permeation of drugs through human skin. 5. When compared to in vivo PK results, a model of the Feldene topical gel was developed and tested for its ability to predict both plasma and local skin concentrations.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12814
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