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DISPERSAL - PubMed

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Last Updated: 16 August 2022

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Phenol-soluble modulin contributes to the dispersal of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from catheters.

The clinical significance of S. epidermidis isolated from sterile body fluid remains uncertain, and it could be related to catheter-associated biofilm infection dispersal. Interestingly, ST2 strains isolated from BF had significantly thicker biofilm than those from CA. In addition, the transcription of PSM U03b4 and PSMu03b5 in ST2 strains isolated from BF was drastically increased in PSMu03b4 and PSMu03b5. Although the bacterial loads on catheters were similar infected with CA- or BF-originated strains in a mouse biofilm-associated infection model, we observed a higher CFU in peri-catheter tissues isolated from BF, meaning that S. epidermidis with thicker biofilm formation may be able to disperse. Our results showed that S. epidermidis obtained from various infection sites had varying biofilm formation capacity. PSM of these strains' higher levels may lead to bacteria dispersal from biofilm and subsequent bacterial outbreak.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.934358


How individual, social, and ecological conditions influence dispersal decisions in male vervet monkeys.

Dispersal among social groups reduces the possibility of inbreeding and can also improve individual's reproductive chances. At Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, 29 male vervet monkeys investigated the causes and consequences of 36 dispersal events from 29 male vervet monkeys, using demographic, behavioral, reproductive, and ecological research. Adult males' secondary dispersal coincided with the conception season in females, and males increased their potential access to females by moving to groups with higher female-to-male sex ratios and/or increasing their dominance rank. Males who dispersed with a peer had lower fecal glucocorticoid and androgen metabolite levels than lone dispersers. Subadult males were less likely to participate in parallel dispersals than adult males. Medication was also used to prevent inbreeding, but hormone changes did not appear to be a source of dispersal in our population.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajp.23426


Humidity Reduces Rapid and Distant Airborne Dispersal of Viable Viral Particles in Classroom Settings.

While physical distancing and mask wearing can help reduce short-range transmission, the degree of long-range transmission in closed spaces, where a pathogen remains suspended in the air remains unknown. We've developed a way to detect live virus particles by using an aerosolized bacteriophage Phi6 in combination with its host Pseudomonas phaseolicola, which when seeded on agar plates, acts as a virus detector that can be planted at a variety of distances away from an aerosol-generating source.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.2c00243


Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Taxa Show Variable Patterns of Micro-Scale Dispersal in Prairie Restorations.

Previous research has shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi additions can increase native plant longevity and success in plant community restorations, but AMF dispersal in these systems is poorly understood. We investigated the dispersal of AMF taxa inoculated into four tallgrass prairie restorations in this report. We inoculated native plant species with greenhouse-cultured native AMF taxa or whole soil collected from a nearby unplowed prairie at each location. At various distances from inoculation, we monitored AMF dispersal, AMF biomass, plant development, and plant community composition at various locations. AMF taxa differ in their dispersal capability, with some taxa spreading to 2-M in the first year and others remaining closer to the inoculation threshold. In some regions, we also found evidence that AMF spread modified non-inoculated neighboring plant growth and community composition.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.827293


Density-dependent dispersal promotes female-biased sex allocation in viscous populations.

The optimal sex ratio is expected to be completely independent of the rate of dispersal, according to a surprising result emerging from the theory of sex allocation. The kin-composition effects of a female-biased sex ratio have been fully abolished, despite the fact that, under density-independent dispersal, a population viscosity is not only linked to increased relatedness, but also with higher kin competition, which discourages female bias-under density-dependent dispersal, is largely negated. In the context of density-dependent dispersal, these results show that population viscosity promotes female-biased sex ratios.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2022.0205


Clonal expansion and dispersal pathways of Puccinia polysora in China.

Puccinia polysora Underw's rust in Southern corn rust was caused by Puccinia polysora Underw. SCR has been elevated from a minor to a major disease around the world, including in China. Based on genotype results, the population structure, genetic variation, and reproduction strategy of P. polysora were investigated. The populations collected from the pathogen's winter-reproductive regions of the pathogen's winter-reproductive regions had higher genotypes than those obtained from the pathogen's epidemic regions. P. polysora used clone dispersal from the pathogen's winter-reproductive regions to the pathogen's epidemic areas, in addition to the pathogen's winter-reproductive regions, the pathogen in Anhui and Hunan may have other sources from Taiwan, China, or Southeast Asia, where the pathogen went through a genetic bottleneck during dispersal. These results provide first insight into P. polysora reproduction mode and dispersal routes in China.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-06-21-0256-R


Does Plant Identity Affect the Dispersal of Resistomes Above and Below Ground?

Both the plant phyllosphere and soil-borne nematodes, according to previous studies, were reservoirs of above- and below-ground resistomes. High-throughput quantitative PCR from all samples revealed a total of 222 antibiotic resistance genes and 7 mobile genetic elements. Plant identification not only affected the diversity of resistomes in soil, nematode, and phyllosphere, but also influenced the abundance of resistomes in nematodes. Plant identity had no direct influence on phyllosphere ARGs, but indirectly by complex above- and below-ground interactions, according to quantitative equation models.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c08733


Oak Galls Exhibit Ant Dispersal Convergent with Myrmecochorous Seeds.

AbstractAbouttaAboutIntegrating galls of some cynipid wasp species disperse oak galls in a similar manner to how they disperse seeds with elaiosomes. Seed-dispersing ants retrieve these galls as they do myrmecochorous seeds in field and laboratory settings with ant-dispersed seeds and wasp-induced galls discovered in ant nests and discovered that seed-dispersed ants retrieve these galls as they do myrmecochorous seeds. Ants are particularly attracted to kapu00e9llos, according to a study that we carried out manipulative experiments in which we removed the putative ant-attracting appendages from galls, indicating that ants are particularly attracted to kapu00e9llos. We also saw seed-dispersing ants returning oak galls to their nests, rodents, and birds eating oak galls that were not found by ants. These results indicate convergence in ant-mediated dispersal of myrmecochorous seeds and oak galls. These findings demand that existing ant-plant research assumptions be reconsidered, as ant-mediated seed and gall dispersal appear strongly convergent, and gall galls are more abundant in eastern North American deciduous forests than myrmecochorous seeds.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1086/720283


Simple Mechanisms of Plant Reproductive Benefits Yield Different Dynamics in Pollination and Seed Dispersal Mutualisms.

We designed simple population dynamic models that were easy enough to determine the various ways plant populations benefit from animal pollination or seed dispersal. We modeled benefits as functions of foraging rate by animals on plant rewards, and asked whether they affected plant seed set, germination, or negative density dependent during recruitment. We found that pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms are stable at high density, but that at low density, plant carrying capacity, animal foraging effectiveness, and whether populations are obligated on their partners for perpetuity are all consistent.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1086/720204

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions