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DISPERSAL - Crossref

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Last Updated: 16 August 2022

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Earliest evidence for fruit consumption and potential seed dispersal by birds

Early Cretaceous diversification of birds was a major event in terrestrial ecosystems history, occurring during the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution's earliest phase, long before the bird crown-group was established. Today, frugivorous birds play a vital part in seed dispersal. However, reports of fruit intake in early birds from outside the crown-group have been lacking. We show that Jeholornis is the first evidence for bird fruit intake, as well as showing that birds may have been sent for seed dispersal during the earliest stages of the avian radiation. Early birds as mobile seed dispersal in plants may have broadened the scope for biotic dispersal in plants, and may have helped to explain, at least in part, the subsequent evolutionary evolution of fruits, suggesting a potential role of bird–u2013plant interactions in the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.7554/elife.74751


The African continental divide: Indian versus Atlantic Ocean spreading during Gondwana dispersal

We present a comprehensive review of the temporal variation in the mean half rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, as well as plate-kinematic attributes obtained from global plate-tectonic models during Gondwana's dispersal since ca. In the Indian Ocean, the mean rate of seafloor spreading increased was at 55 Ma, 55 Ma. After India collided with Asia at ca, this event was followed by a rapid decrease in the mean rate of Indian Ocean seafloor spreading. Since inception, the mean rate of seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean has been more than doubled than that in the Atlantic Ocean, and the time of the fastest mean half spreading rate in the Indian Ocean coincided with a decrease in mean seafloor spreading rate in the competing Atlantic Ocean. We hypothesize that faster and warmer seafloor spreading in the Indian Ocean resulted in more ridge-push forces, which were sent through the African plate, contributing to a slowdown in Atlantic Ocean spreading. We hypothesize that the African ocean's increased distribution and increased seafloor spreading. Following the collision between India and Asia and a slowdown of Indian Ocean spreading, Atlantic spreading rates then increased. Although we do not agree that the ridge push is the primary source of plate motions, we do believe it played a role in the coupling of the oceans' kinematic evolution.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1130/2021.2553(07)


Non-local dispersal equations with almost periodic dependence. II. Asymptotic dynamics of Fisher-KPP equations

This series of two papers is dedicated to the investigation of the key spectral theory of nonlocal dispersal operators with almost regular reliance, as well as the investigation of nonlinear nonlocal dispersal equations with almost constant dependence. We investigated the main spectral theory of nonlocal dispersal operators from two directions: top Lyapunov exponents and generalized principal eigenvalues in the first part of the series. In this paper, we also establish a new property of the generalized principal eigenvalues of nonlocal dispersal operators using the asymptotic dynamics of nonlocal dispersal Fisher-KPP equations.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3934/dcdss.2022145


Out of Africa: Juvenile Dispersal of Black-Shouldered Kites in the Emerging European Population

In a continuing long-term investigation that began in 2003, we here examine youth dispersal of the poorly studied Black-shouldered Kite monitored in southwestern Spain. Since no kites were discovered in the European fossil record, the European population of Black-shouldered kites has increased to the North in the late twentieth and 21st centuries, the breeding population has reportedly increased to the North. We have tested two competing hypotheses that may help explain Elanus' leptokurtic distribution of the natal dispersal distance. Since nestlings hatched from high quality territories stayed closer to their natal area than nestlings hatched from poorer territories, nestlings hatched first within the brood also hatched earlier than nestlings who migrate further away from their natal region than later nestlings who migrated farther away from their natal region, they may have migrated farther away from their natal area than later hatched nestlings who hatch first within the brood population.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162070


Long-Term Ash Dispersal Dataset of the Sakurajima Taisho Eruption for Ashfall Disaster Countermeasure

We're using the ashfall deposit and airborne ash concentration data from a large-scale volcanic eruption's dispersal model as a reference for an ashfall disaster countermeasure. As our case report allows us a baseline for the worst-case scenario, we choose Taisho eruption in Sakurajima volcano, which is regarded as the most active eruption in Japan in the last century. To show how modern Japan will influence contemporary Japan, we employ one eruption scenario approach by replicating the actual eruption under various extended weather conditions. With a volcanic ash dispersal model and meteorological reanalysis results for 64 years, we can provide the ash dispersal dataset by simulating the ash transport of the Taisho eruption scenario. We describe the data collection process and publish the results in several formats for broader audiences. We'll explain the dataset design process and the dataset's publication.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2022-42


Seed dispersal syndromes in the Madagascan flora: the unusual importance of primates

Abstract Madagascar is one of the island's most endangered biodiversity hotspots, and protecting its wildlife is becoming more important as deforestation continues. We therefore took a theoretical approach to investigate plant-u2013disperser interactions in Madagascar in order to identify potential dispersal gaps. To later identify the most likely dispersal agents for each of Madagascar's endemic plant species, we used computer science tools to debunk outdated data on essential plant characteristics. In Madagascar, this lower percentage of endozoochorous species and a greater proportion of species with a primate syndrome in comparison to other tropical areas reflects the island's unusual disperser guild. Only five bird species are endangered, but 20 lemur species are frugivorous, and 16 of those lemur species are now threatened with destruction. A significant number of Madagascar's endemic plants will reach an extinction vortex if the disappearance of frugivorous lemurs will significantly change Madagascar's ecosystems' vegetation patterns, and a significant number of the species's endemic plants will reach an extinction vortex.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0030605317001600


Dispersal of hydrogen in the retina – a three-layer model

Two simple mathematical simulations of advection and hydrogen diffusion within the retina are discussed. The first model assumes that the retina is made up of three, well-mixed layers of different thickness, while the second is a two-dimensional model consisting of three regions corresponding the layers in the retina. The effect of several important parameters on the hydrogen concentration is investigated and discussed. The results contribute to the discovery of hydrogen dispersal in the retina, as well as the effect of flow in the vascular retina.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.21914/anziamj.v64.16720


Seed ingestion and germination in rattlesnakes: overlooked agents of rescue and secondary dispersal

Seed dispersal is a primary evolutionary process and a central theme in terrestrial plant population ecology. Specid, heteromyid, and some sciurid rodents in North America have specially designed cheek pouches for transporting seeds from plant source to larder, where they are often removed from the pool of plant propagules by consumption. Snakes are often consumed by snakes as they forage, but snakes are known or suspected of secondary seed dispersal, unlike raptors, coyotes, bobcats, and other endothermic predators that eat rodents and are considered or implicated as secondary seed dispersers, snakes are still unexplored in seed dispersal. Since seed rescue and secondary dispersal in snakes has yet to be investigated, and because several other snake species eat granivorous and frugivorous birds and mammals, our results provide direction for further empirical investigations into this rare yet potentially useful channel for seed dispersal.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2755

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions