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In Pakistani diarrheic sheep, the present research was designed to investigate the prevalence, detection of several risk factors, and evaluation of sensitivity of the two diagnostic methods for rapid and accurate detection of Cryptosporidium infection. After proper preservation, a total of 360 fecal samples were collected and processed for detection of Cryptosporidium infection. The same samples were also processed for confirmation of the Cryptosporidium spp by simple PCR. The highest prevalence was found at the age of u22641-year and two years of age, followed by 1-2 years of age, although the lowest prevalence was found at the age of u2265 2-3 years old, showing significant differences between different ages and different ages. The sex wise prevalence in male animals detected in comparison to female was at the highest rate. Conclusions Molecular analysis was found to be the most accurate, specific, and sensitive method for detecting Cryptosporidium infection than simple microscopy, according to the authors.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0269859
In this research, a MLST-based approach was used to determine the genetic variation of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from 28 Colombian patients. Four allelic families for C. hominis and two for C. parvum were found in a Unilocus gp60 report, with two identifying two for C. hominis and two for C. parvum. All markers tested for both C. hominis and C. parvum, including the CP47, MS5, and gp60 markers, had polymorphic behavior, particularly with the CP47, MS5, and gp60 markers. In addition, two monophyletic clades clustered the species C. hominis and C. parvum were found, with a greater number of subclades within the monophyletic groups compared to those with the gp60 gene. Thirteen MLG were identified for C. hominis and eight for C. parvum, while eight others were identified for C. parvum. In the C. parvum samples, the gene fixation index demonstrated an evolutionary closeness between the C. hominis samples and a less evolutionary closeness and greater sequence divergence.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0270995
Cryptosporidium spp reservoir hosts, Pigs are reservoir hosts for Cryptosporidium spp. The nested PCR and sequence analysis of the small ribosomal subunit RNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp. In a total of 826 fresh fecal samples, the u03b2-giardin gene for G. duodenalis was used to screen for the infection of those parasites. G. duodenalis infections rates in the United States and G. duodenalis infections rates were 0. 9 percent, respectively. 6/8 were C. scrofarum and 2/8 were C. suis, while 2/8 were C. suis, and 2/8 were C. suis, respectively, while two other zoonotic species G. duodenalis assemblage E and assemblage A were also found in 7/8 isolates and 1/8 isolates, respectively.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.949773
Cryptosporidium spp. is a common bacterium spp. A 2010 report revealed a high incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. We collected 2,402 fecal samples from monkeys and 123 water samples from lakes in the park on six occasions between 2013 and 2019. Sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene provided further insight into the C. hominis and C. parvum genes. Compared to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United States, compared to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. Only 18 fecal samples and 3 water samples collected in the 2010 investigation were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. , including C. hominis and C. parvum, including C. hominis and C. parvum. Cryptosporidium spp. detection rate and genetic variation of Cryptosporidium spp. , therefore, is discussed. During this study period, the prevalence of anthroponotic C. hominis subtypes was much lower than those before the public health interventions, and there was a change from common occurrence of anthroponotic C. hominis subtypes to sporadic occurrence of NHP-adapted C. hominis and rodent-adapted C. parvum subtypes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.901766
It's important to note changes in the host fungal community in natural Cryptosporidium infections because it gives the potential explanation of gut microbiome in host homeostasis and disease progression. Using nPCR, a total of 168 rectal fecal samples were collected and analyzed. We analyzed the condition of natural Cryptosporidium infection in horses in Wuhan, China, for the first time, and discovered significant differences in the fungal microbiome in response to natural infection.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.877280
The VIASURE Cryptosporidium, Giardia, & E. histolytica real-time PCR assay was conducted by a clinical study of a large number of well-characterized DNA samples positive for Cryptosporidium spp. Estimated sensitivity and specificity were 0. 96 and 0. 99 for Cryptosporidium spp. , 0. 94 and 1 for G. duodenalis, and 1. 96 and 1 for E. histolytica, respectively, as 0. 96 and 1. 99 for E. histolytica. Both positive and negative predictive values were calculated as 1 and 0. 98 for Cryptosporidium spp. , 0. 99 and 0. 98 for G. duodenalis, and 1 and 0. 99 for E. histolytica. Six Cryptosporidium species were found in the assay, as well as four G. duodenalis assemblages. In humans, the VIASURE assay provides rapid and precise simultaneous detection and identification of the most common species and genetic variations of diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00531-22
Cryptosporidium infection pathophysiological mechanisms are multifactorial and not fully understood. The infection by C. parvum has been linked to the release of NF-u03b2, which is known to induce anti-inflammatory enzymes and transmission oncogenic signals to epithelial cells, as well as providing oncogenic signals. However, many studies point to a correlation between Cryptosporidium infection and gastrointestinal neoplasia. The aim of investigating the behaviour of Cryptosporidiosis infection, an animal model of cryptosporidiosis that uses corticoid dexamethasone-treated adult SCID mice who was orally infected with C. parvum or Cryptosporidiosis muris oocysts was initiated. Animals that were C. parvum-infected with C. parvum-infected animals developed digestive adenocarcinoma. When compared to non-infected controls, a microarray assay enabled the detection of cancer-promoting genes and pathways in the group of C. parvum infected animals. In addition, multiple human case/control studies showed a significant rise in Cryptosporidium infection among patients with newly diagnosed colon cancer before any therapy, relative to the control group.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2022.e00153
Cryptosporidium spp. The aim of this research was to investigate methods of inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be quickly applied in the lab and determine the use of whole inactive oocysts in quantitative PCR. Experiments were carried out on C. parvum oocysts that were either heated or treated with increasing amounts of ethanol and methanol over time. In vitro, concentrations of u226570% of these chemicals were required to completely stop excystation and infection of Hct-8 cells. Moreover, non-profitable oocysts used specifically in qPCR assays of the COWP gene were also useful reference reagents for the detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium in spiked water samples. In summary, we have found a cost-effective way to activate C. parvum oocysts in a laboratory that is suitable for the development of detection or diagnostic assays aimed at the parasite.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2022.e00163
Substitining Cryptosporidium parvum for outbreak or epidemiological surveillance mostly depends on DNA sequence analysis of a 60 KDa glycoprotein coding for a 60 KDa glycoprotein. Although gp60 can be used for allelic discrimination and help determine sources and routes of transmission, the occurrence of common subtypes and recombination during the parasite's sexual life cycle warrants a multilocus-based test for more discriminatory genotyping. Although whole genome sequencing could be the most effective treatment, it would be a time-consuming and costly option for faecal parasites such as Cryptosporidium that are low in population and are impossible to propagate routinely. The discriminatory power was much greater than the previously used gp60 sequencing, which included 26 subtypes, compared to 100 different MLVA profiles within the same sample set. The assay was robust, with repeatable results and reproducibility in three laboratories demonstrating that the method was suitable for inter-laboratory comparison of C. parvum subtypes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fawpar.2022.e00151
In several areas of Ethiopia, Chlorocebus aethiops and Colobus guereza and humans have overlapping territories, which may increase the chance of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium. In two samples, mixed infections of C. parvum and C. hominis were present in both samples. Four C. hominis family subtypes were identified, as well as one C. parvum family subtype. The most common subtypes found were IaA20 and C. parvum IIaA17G1R1. These results show that Chlorocebus aethiops and Colobus guereza can be infected with a variety of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes that can also infect humans.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0267103
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