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Coral Reefs - Wiley Online Library

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Last Updated: 18 May 2022

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Expanding narratives of governance constraints to improve coral reef conservation

The widespread degradation of coral reefs is often traced to local to global governance inequalities. To comprehend and fix reef governance's shortcomings, it's important to know the views of diverse policymakers and practitioners about the challenges they face in achieving their goals. In four countries of the Wider Caribbean Region, this report investigated the governance challenges faced by 110 policymakers and practitioners across a variety of industries, sizes, and settings. According to our argument, reviewing perceptions can both help to enhance governance and determine the appropriateness of specific management techniques under context-specific governance constraints. In addition, broadening the narratives of governance issues to include the subtle values and photographs underpinning governance, as well as the severity of the challenges faced, may help to identify a broader range of opportunities for change.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.13933


Functional impact and trophic morphology of small, sand‐sifting fishes on coral reefs

Thicken trophic interactions enable efficient internal energy and nutrient cycling in tropical coral reefs that are built on tight trophic interactions. In several reef habitats, several small fishes have developed to feed on apparently barren sand patches that connect hard to substratum patches. Sifting small prey items from the sediment is one of many ways to get prey from a particulate matrix. We used aquarium-based feeding experiments to determine the effect of winnowing by two sand-dwelling goby species on meiobenthos abundance and variety, as well as their actual ingestion of meiobenthos using gut content analysis. On coral reefs, our findings reveal important information about the trophic relationship between the meiobenthos and winnowing gobies. We propose that winnowing gobies serve as a vital conduit for sand-derived energy to higher trophic levels by having devised a specialized approach to extracting nutritious and abundant prey from seemingly barren sand.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.14087


Scale dependence of coral reef oases and their environmental correlates

We used occupancy models to determine the effect of ten environmental predictors on the likelihood that an area would have coral oases identified at four spatial scales: cross-basin, basin, region, and sub-region. oases were more likely to occur in habitats with high light attenuation across all four spatial scales. The effect of other environmental predictors on the probability of oasis occurrence was less consistent and varied with the size of study. At the regional and sub-regional levels oases were more likely where sea-surface temperature was more variable, while at larger spatial scales, the opposite was true. The model can help prioritize reef areas for management by determining the reasons for oasis occurrences by determining the cause of oasis occurrences. Coral reef oases in all geographic regions would likely support coral reef oases in areas with biophysical conditions that give corals with physiological stability and limited human impacts.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eap.2651


High Performance PA Nanofiltration Membrane with Coral‐reef‐like Morphology atop Polydopamine Decorated EVOH Nanofiber Scaffold

Herein, we described a fast way to engineer a polyamide nanofiltration membranes with a coral-like thin PA active layer atop a polydopamine pre-decorated EVOH nanofiber scaffold by interfacial polymerization. With the stable operation time and high sodium concentration, the resultant nanofiltration membrane delivers a high permeance of 32. 19 L/m–1bar–1 and a high rejection of 96. 22% to 1000 ppm Na2SO4 feed solution with the highest success against operation time and high salt content. Our research leads to a new way to fabricate PA TFNC membranes with outstanding nanofiltration results in liquid separation applications.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/macp.202200088


Assessing the potential for demographic restoration and assisted evolution to build climate resilience in coral reefs

In response to growing anthropogenic stressors, especially climate change and associated mass bleaching events, rising interest is being developed in creating conservation plans to restore and protect coral reef ecosystems in the face of rising anthropogenic stressors. One of the most common methods is to propagate coral colonies ex situ and transplant them to degraded reef areas to increase reef habitat for reef-dependent fish, prevent colonization from spatial competitors, and improve coral reproduction. Using an evolutionary simulation model, we investigated the potential results of population change and assisted change in climate change scenarios. If input levels are high and maintained for centuries, we discovered that supplementing reefs with preexisting genotypes provides no climate resilience benefits. Overall, we found that although population restoration and assisted evolution have the ability to increase long-term coral protection, both methods had limited success in preventing major declines under climate change scenarios.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eap.2650


Thermal plasticity of coral reef symbionts is linked to major alterations in their lipidome composition

Coral bleaching caused by ocean warming is contributing to global coral decline. The physiological mechanisms under this ecological phenomenon are also unclear, although recent reports have identified oxidative stress as a key factor in the deposition of symbiotic membranes and in symbiosis degradation. After a heat shock in vitro experiments, untargeted lipidomic approach was used to investigate changes in the lipidome and pigments of three coral reef symbionts. Despite showing distinct adaptations, the two heat-tolerant symbionts were characterized by membrane lipid preservation after heat shock, especially glycolipids. Our review provides a solid base for the investigation of lipidome and pigment changes of Symbiodiniaceae in response to heat stress, although it is limited by the examination of free-living symbionts. Novel lipid biomarkers related to thermal stress are suggested.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lno.12094


A roadmap to integrating resilience into the practice of coral reef restoration

Mass coral bleaching and mortality have occurred around the world, leading to global warming leaders, policymakers, and conservation experts to embrace restoration as a way to protect coral reefs. Despite a proliferation of new coral reef restoration efforts around the world and increasing scientific recognition and study on reef resilience due to climate change and resilience, only few restoration initiatives are currently incorporating climate change and resilience in project design. As climate change continues to degrade coral reefs for decades to come, guidelines are required to help coral reef restorers and restoration practitioners perform restoration that promotes resilience by improved coral reef recovery, resistance, and adaptation. As coral reefs are one of the world's most fragile ecosystems to climate change, actions that improve reef resilience can help ensure that restoration efforts have a greater chance of success in a warming world. As coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change, reef restoration efforts will be more effective in a warming world.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.16212


Traits, landmarks and outlines: Three congruent sides of a tale on coral reef fish morphology

Abstract: Given the formfunction relationship, quantifying organisms' morphology is still important in ecology. We use these three techniques to 111 individual coral reef fish of 40 species common in Micronesia. We also use each morphology database to determine community-scale morphological diversity on Palauan reefs and explore how the choice of data can reveal patterns of morphological variants among locations and wave exposure levels. The exact ranking of sites from highest to lowest morphological diversity was sensitive to the intervention taken, but not the general pattern of morphological diversity. The effect of wave exposure on morphological diversity was consistent with the strategy used. Biodiversity hotspots are considered important conservation goals, but their location may vary depending on the species of metric used. In the same vein, our findings caution against naming specific places as morphological diversity hotspots because metrics examine only a single aspect of morphology.

Source link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.8787

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions