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Complement - PubMed

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Last Updated: 03 September 2022

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Phosphate Frustration: Treatment Options to Complement Current Therapies.

Many patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis are unable to consistently achieve and maintain serum phosphate levels below 5. 5 mg/dL despite low phosphorus diets, clearance by dialysis, and phosphate binder use. Patients on dialysis receiving phosphate binders were unable to achieve serum phosphate u22645. 5 mg/dL over 6 months, according to a chart review by patients on dialysis receiving phosphate binders. To improve phosphate management, phosphate bindingers can only remove approximately 300 mg of the 2,500 mg or more daily dietary phosphate intake, phosphate binders' daily diet, phosphate binders are required.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9457440


An overview of complement systems in teleosts.

In mammals, complement is stimulated by three pathways, including the classical pathway, the alternative route, and the lectin pathway. C3-convertase is available in different forms at all three activation pathways. The cleavage and activation cleaves C3 to C3a and C3b and sparks a cascade of cleavage and activation, leading to the formation of the membrane attack complex. Although the complement system has been extensively researched in mammals, it is not so well understood in teleosts. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the telost complement components involved in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and cell lysis. We discuss the characterized complement components present in a variety of teleost species. In addition, we provide a comprehensive review of complement regulators, and this data is used to determine the role of complement regulators in pathogen infection. The effect of complement receptors on teleosts' immune responses is investigated.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2022.104520


Mapping of the Complement C9 Binding Region on Clonorchis sinensis Paramyosin.

Previously, we discovered that Clonorchis sinensis's paramyosin is bound to human complement C9 protein. To investigate the C9 binding region on CsPmy, overlapping recombinant fragments of CsPmy were discovered, and their binding activity to human C9 was investigated. The C9 binding region was found at the C-terminus of CsPmy, according to the fragmental expression of CsPmy and C9 binding assays. The region flanking731Leu-780 Leu was a highly binding area for CsPmy, according to a further investigation of the C-terminus of CsPmy to narrow the C9 binding region on CsPmy.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2022.60.4.255


Invariant surface glycoprotein 65 of Trypanosoma brucei is a complement C3 receptor.

Trypanosomes evade the adaptive immune response by antigenic variation, but no information is known about how they interact with elements of the innate immune response, including complement. We also demonstrate that C3 plays a role in the prevention of trypanosome infections during early infection in a mouse model, as well as showing that ISG65 is involved in reducing trypanosome susceptibility to C3-mediated clearance. Trypanosomes in ISG65 have created a C3 receptor, which reduces the downstream effects of C3 deposition on disease control.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32728-9


Nonstructural Protein 1 of Variant PEDV Plays a Key Role in Escaping Replication Restriction by Complement C3.

The classical porcine epidemic diarrhea virus first appeared in the early 1970s in the early 1970s. However, the methods by which PEDV variants' host immune responses are not fully understood. Complement component 3 is regarded as a key component of the three complement activation pathways and is instrumental in the prevention of viral transmission. C3 significantly inhibited PEDV replication in vitro, and both variant and classic PEDV strains produced elevated levels of interleukin-1u03b2 in Huh7 cells, according to this report. However, the PEDV version strain reduces C3 transcript and protein levels induced by IL-1u03b2 by IL-1u03b2, relative to the PEDV classical strain. variant PEDV reduced C3 by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein u03b2 phosphorylation, according to an examination of key molecules of the C3 transcriptional signaling pathway, showing that variant PEDV decreased C3 by lowering C3 production by blocking CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein u03b2 phosphorylation. The degradation of C/EBP-u03b2 phosphorylation was halted by amino acid residue 50, according to Mechanistically, PEDV nonstructural protein 1 prevented C/EBP-u03b2 phosphorylation by amino acid residue 50. We developed recombinant PEDVs to demonstrate the crucial role of amino acid 50 of NSP1 in the regulation of C3 expression. In summary, we established a novel antiviral role for C3 in inhibiting PEDV replication and PEDV evasion strategies of PEDV variants. IMPORTANCE The complement system provides a vital link between the innate and adaptive immunity of the human race and the adaptive immunity, as well as the ability to detect and neutralize various pathogens. Different coronaviruses and even different subtype strains differ in regulation of C3 expression, revealing that for the first time in this research, a novel mechanism of a PEDV variant in the suppression of C3 expression was discovered.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.01024-22


Type XVII collagen: Relevance of distinct epitopes, complement-independent effects, and association with neurological disorders in pemphigoid disorders.

Pemphigoid diseases are autoimmune skin blistering disorders characterized by autoantibodies directed against proteins of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Different epitopes on BP180 have been reported to be recognized by PD disease patients' autoantibodies to date. So far, the key effects of anti-BP180 reactivity are mediated by Fc u03b3-receptors on immune cells. The autoantibody-antigen interaction at the BMZ leads to the development of complement and infiltration of immune cells into the upper dermis, as well as specific enzymes and reactive oxygen species that lead to oxidation of BP180 and other BMZ components, resulting in blisters and erosions. Autoantibodies against BP180 can also be found in patients with neurological disorders. The claim that PD has underlying epitope specificity in lieu of target antigens, autoantibody isotypes, and antibody glycosylation is backed up by the fact that epitope specificity of PD patients differ from those of PD patients.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.948108


The role of the complement system in Multiple Sclerosis: A review.

Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis consists of biological studies of post-mortem MS brains, as well as animal models of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Complement knock-out studies in these animal models have shown that this procedure may have a "double-edge sword" effect in MS. On the other hand, complement proteins can help promote the removal of myelin degradation products and other debris by myeloid cell-mediated phagocytosis. On the other hand, its aberrant activation could result in demyelination at the rim of progressive MS white matter lesions as well as synapse loss in the gray matter. The complement system can also interact with known risk factors of MS, such as Epstein Barr Virus infection, and perpetuate the proliferation of CNS self-reactive B cell populations.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.970486


The complement system and complement-like factors in sea cucumber.

We investigated the complement-like factors including Component 3, Complement Factor B, Mannan-binding lectin, and global Complement component 1q Receptor, which had been present in sea cucumber's complement system. In addition, we compared complement components among marine invertebrates and then outlined the evolution of sea cucumber complement systems specifically. Meantime, the complete framework of sea cucumber complementation may be of use to the aquaculture industry.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2022.104511

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions