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Complement - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 03 September 2022

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Isolation, characterisation and complement fixation activity of acidic polysaccharides from Argemone mexicana used as antimalarials in Mali.

Context Global studies on Argemone mexicana L. , which are traditionally used against malaria in Mali, are limited to the company's low-mass compounds' activities, and no data on its bioactive polysaccharides is available. Aim This research determines the characteristics and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from aerial parts of A. mexicoa. Materials and methods Acidic polysaccharides isolated from water extracts were isolated from this plant material named HMA1 and HMAmA2. Results The monosaccharide composition revealed that the two polysaccharides contained in different amounts of the following monomers: arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, and galacturonic acid. Overall, a good fit of 1,2-linked rhamnose was found in comparison to 1,4-linked galacturonic acid with arabinogalactans substituted on position 4 of rhamnose. U03b1-Linkages were discovered for l-arabinose, l-rhamnose, and d-galacturonic acid, respectively, while u03b2-linkages for d-galactose were found. HMAmA1's value was 5 g/mL, compared to the control BPII's of 15. 9 g/mL.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35797701


Circulating immune-complexes and complement activation through the classical pathway in myeloperoxidase-ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis is the most common glomerular disorders with poor renal prognosis, with poor renal function. The activation of the complement system has recently been documented in the AAGN's pathogenesis, but it is uncertain as to which complement pathway is primarily involved. Methods 20 patients with myeloperoxidase -AAGN were retrospectively assessed. The WIESLAB/u00ae Complement System Classical Pathway kit provided more insight into Complement activation via the classical pathway. CICs were positive in 65% of the patients, according to the findings. In addition, serum C5a and C5b-9 were both elevated in MPO-AAGN patients, and these values were positively related to CIC values. A significant negative correlation was also found between WIESLAB's classical pathway kit and CICs. MFP-AAGN patients' deposition of MASP-1, MBL, and factor Bb were all present in similar distributions, with immunofluorescence staining and glomerular deposition of C4d, C5, and C5b-9, respectively, whereas MPO-AAGN patients' deposition of MASP-1, MBL, and factor Bb being minor, whereas factor Bb was minimal, according to M. F4d, C5, and C5b-9.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35491890


Complement evasion factor (CEF), a novel immune evasion factor of Streptococcus pyogenes .

A large arsenal of virulence factors is found in S. pyogenes' arsenal, which includes various immune defense mechanisms. In the S. pyogenes SF370 genome, we have found an open reading frame encoding a protein of unknown function. Furthermore, rSpy0136 stymied deposition of the C3b and the membrane attack complex on the surface of S. pyogenes. In an in-vitro whole blood killing assay and a Galleria mellonella infection model, an S. pyogenetic factor'decreased virulence. The Spy0136/CEF sero-conversion gene was found during disease, according to analysis of serum samples from patients with invasive S. pyogenes. In summary, we have discovered a new S. pyogenes immune evasion factor that binds to several complement proteins in order to interfere with complement function. This is the first example of a S. pyogenes virulence factor binding to several different target proteins by glycan-dependent interactions.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35094646


Different impact of bovine complement regulatory protein 46 (CD46 bov ) as a cellular receptor for members of the species Pestivirus H and Pestivirus G .

Pestivirus A and Pestivirus B are two species of Pestivirus A and B, respectively, and the Flaviviridae of the family Flaviviridae includes highly infectious animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 and 2 classified into pestivirus A and Pestivirus B. Moreover, two giraffe pestivirus strains both originating from Kenya are related to another specific species, whose members reproduce very well in bovine cells. Our data shows that CD46 bov affects viruses belonging to Pestivirus H and viruses that represent Pestivirus G : CD46 bov has been a key cellular entry factor for HoBiPeV strain HaVi-20. We also showed that both Pestivirus H and Pestivirus G virus isolates, as well as BVDV-1 and -2, virus isolates are able to adapt to cell culture conditions by using heparan sulfate to penetrate the host cell. In conclusion, our results show that different bovine pestiviruses use a variety of host cell transport methods.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/34839792


Gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement differentially contribute to ethanol intake, preference, and relapse-like behaviour in four core genotypes mice.

Alcohol use and high-risk alcohol use among women are quickly growing. We used the four core genotypes mouse model to investigate the effects of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on EtOH drinking habits. In mice with ovaries, relative to those with testes, and in mice with the XX chromosome complement, relative to those with Xy sex chromosomes, EtOH intake was higher in mice with ovaries and in mice with the XX chromosome complement. Mice with ovaries were also found to drink more water than mice with testes. These findings show that EtOH drinking habits can be directly controlled by sex hormones and chromosomes, as well as providing a better understanding of the neurobiochemical pathways that contribute to EtOH dependence in male and female mice. These results show that certain aspects of EtOH drinking habits may be independently controlled by sex hormones and chromosomes.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36001422


HP1 deficiency results in De-Repression of Endogenous Retroviruses and Induction of Neurodegeneration via Complement

Summary Hepatitin loss in aging cells and animal models of premature aging coincides with the transcriptional activation of typically silenced endogenous retroviruses. HP1 protein deficiency is detrimental to DNA maintenance methylation, according to a few HP1 proteins in ERV silencing, where HP1u03b3 is vital and sufficient for H4K20me3 deposition. The de-repression in HP1/u03b3 DKO mice was followed by boost infiltration and activation of microglia, which culminated in the introduction of Complement 3+ reactive astrocytes, increased infiltration and activation of microglia.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR537718


Invariant surface glycoprotein 65 of Trypanosoma brucei is a complement C3 receptor.

Trypanosomes evade the adaptive immune response due to antigenic variation, but no information is known about how they interact with elements of the innate immune response, such as complement. We also show that C3 aids in the prevention of trypanosomes during early infection in a mouse model, and that ISG65 is involved in reducing trypanosome susceptibility to C3-mediated clearance. Trypanosomes in ISG65 have developed a C3 receptor that minimizes the downstream effects of C3 deposition on disease control in ISG65.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36038546


Nonstructural Protein 1 of Variant PEDV Plays a Key Role in Escaping Replication Restriction by Complement C3.

The classical porcine epidemic diarrhea virus first appeared in the early 1970s and was first discovered in the early 1970s. Since 2010, outbreaks of highly infectious PEDV variants have caused significant economic damage to the swine industry around the world. However, the tactics by which PEDV variants elicit host immune responses are not fully understood. Complement component 3 is regarded as a key component of the three complement activation pathways and plays a vital role in preventing viral infection. In Huh7 cells, we found that C3 significantly reduced PEDV replication in vitro, and that both variant and traditional PEDV strains produced high amounts of interleukin-1u03b2. However, the PEDV strain has reduced C3 transcript and protein levels induced by IL-1u03b2 in comparison to the PEDV classical strain. Version PEDV decreased C3 by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein u03b2 phosphorylation, according to an examination of key molecules of the C3 transcriptional signaling pathway. 1 An amino acid residue 50 inhibited C/EBP-u03b2 phosphorylation by amino acid residue 50, mechanistically. Finally, we developed recombinant PEDVs to determine the essential role of amino acid 50 of NSP1 in C3 expression control. In summary, we found a new antiviral role for C3 in blocking PEDV replication and PEDVV escape strategies of PEDV variants, as well as the viral immune escape strategies of PEDV variants. In this research, we discovered a novel mechanism of a PEDV variant in the suppression of C3 expression, demonstrating that different coronaviruses and even different subtype strains differ in regulation of C3 expression.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36037478


An overview of complement systems in teleosts.

Complement is stimulated in mammals by three pathways, the classical pathway, the alternative route, and the lectin pathway. C3-convertase is available in a variety of forms. All three activation pathways lead to C3-convertase. Convertase converts C3 to C3a and C3b, triggering a cascade of cleavage and activation that leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex. Although the complement system has been extensively studied in mammals, in teleosts, it is less well understood. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the teleost complements involved in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and cell lysis. We discuss the characterized complement components of several teleost species. In addition, we publish a comprehensive overview of complement regulators, and this data is used to analyze the role of complement regulators in pathogen infection. The effects of complement receptors on teleosts' immune responses are investigated.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36041641

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions