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Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, is an inherited condition that increases the risk of several types of cancer, particularly colon and rectum cancers, which are collectively identified as colorectal cancer. Because of these cancers of the female reproductive organ, women with Lynch syndrome have a greater chance of experiencing cancer than men with the disorder. Noncancerous growths in the colon may occasionally occur in the colon, termed colon polyps.
Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis may begin to exhibit multiple noncancerous increases in the colon as early as their teenage years. 39 years old is the average age at which an individual develops colon cancer in classic familial adenomatous polyposis. The typical age of colorectal cancer onset for attenuated familial polyposis is 55 years. Polyps increase with age, and hundreds to thousands of polyps can appear in the colon. People with colon polyps as well as colon polyps as well as growth outside the colon are often described as having Gardner syndrome. Also identified is a milder form of familial adenomatous polyposis, which is also known as autosomal recessive familial adenomatous polyposis. Polyps in people with autosomal recessive disease have fewer polyps than those with the classic form.
About half of people with CMMRD syndrome have cancer before age 18, most in late childhood. The age of diagnosis varies with the cancer type; brain tumors, leukemia, and lymphomas tend to occur at younger ages than colorectal cancer in people with CMMRD syndrome; colorectal cancer in people with CMMRD syndrome. It is predicted that 20 to 40 percent of people with CMMRD syndrome who experience cancer will have another cancer later in life. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the most common blood cancer in CMMRD syndrome, is found in white blood cells and affects white blood cells. Many people with CMMRD syndrome have facial characteristics that match those that occur in a condition called neurofibromatosis type 1. CMMRD syndrome patients with CMMRD syndrome will have Lisch nodules, which are benign growths that often appear in the eye's colored region.
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