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Cell Cortex - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 10 January 2023

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The cell cortex-localized protein CHDP-1 is required for dendritic development and transport in C. elegans neurons.

It is also unclear how cortical actin assembly is controlled in dendrites and whether it is important for dendrite formation, maintenance, and function. We find that knocking out of C. elegans chd-1, which codes a cell cortex-localized protein, leads to dendrite formation defects in the larval stages and spontaneous dendrite degeneration in adults. In the chdp-1 mutants, Actin assembly in the dendritic growth cones has been greatly reduced. PVD neurons detect muscle contraction and act as pro-concerts in PVD. Prosception is lost when expressing CHDP-1 in the PVD neurons, which can be restored by expressing CHDP-1 in the PVD neurons. The microtubule cytoskeleton assembly, intracellular organelle transport, and neuropeptide secretion are all in the high-ordered branches. CHDP-1 and SAX-1 serve in an opposing manner in the multi-dendritic neurons' to modulate cortical actin assembly, which is vital for dendrite formation, maintenance, and function.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1010381


Active torque generation by the actomyosin cell cortex drives left–right symmetry breaking

LR asymmetry appears early in growth, and in some species the primary determinant of this asymmetry has been traced to the cytoskeleton. We use thin-film active chiral fluid theory alongside experimental analysis of the C. elegans embryo to show that the actomyosin cortex yields active chiral torques to enable chiral symmetry breaking. Notably, they also ran the chiral skew event at the 4-cell stage to establish the C. elegans LR body axis.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04165


Mouse T cell priming is enhanced by maturation-dependent stiffening of the dendritic cell cortex

The interacting antigen-presenting cell's cortical cytoskeleton of the living antigen-presenting cell promotes T cell activation by dendritic cells. DCs undergo a maturation process that enhances their ability to properly prime nau00efve T cells during an immune response. We find that increasing stiffness lowers the agonist dose required for T cell activation by using stimulatory hydrogels and DCs that are mutant cytoskeletal proteins. T cells with CD4+ T cells have a greater tendency to bloatiness than CD8+ T cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55995


Formins: Emerging Players in the Dynamic Plant Cell Cortex

Plant formins are thus potential mediators of coordination of the cortical actin and microtubule cytoskeletons' coordination, as well as their attachment to the plasma membrane, indicating that cell- and tissue morphogenesis are likely to be important for cell and tissue morphogenesis. Although experimental investigations into plant formin function are limited due to a large number of formin genes and their functional redundancy, recent experimental research has nonetheless produced some groundbreaking insights into plant formin function.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.6064/2012/712605


Functional Remodeling of the Contractile Smooth Muscle Cell Cortex, a Provocative Concept, Supported by Direct Visualization of Cortical Remodeling

We suspect the cortical cytoskeletal matrix to be a branched, interconnected network of linear actin bundles. Talin has been shown in previous studies to span the integrin-u2013cytoplasm distance in fibroblasts and zyxin is known to be an adaptor protein between alpha-actinin and VASP. No movement of talin was detected in the study of smooth muscle cells, which was statistically reduced in the alpha-agonist phenylephrine. Contractile smooth muscle is often assumed to have a predetermined cytoskeletal configuration. The findings published here are significant in that they directly support the theory that the contractile smooth muscle cell's focal adhesion is of a dynamic nature and that protein-specific interactions demonstrating plasticity are protein-specific.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050662


Photorhabdus luminescens TccC3 Toxin Targets the Dynamic Population of F-Actin and Impairs Cell Cortex Integrity

At Thr-148, unlike other actin-targeting toxins, TccC3's ADP-ribosylates actin, resulting in the development of actin aggregates and inhibition of phagocytosis. The fully modified F-Actin is resistant to depolymerization by cofilin and gelsolin, according to reports, but the effects on partially modified actin were not explored. The biological TcC3 substrate, not the physiological TccC3 substrate, and we discovered that only F-actin unprotected by tropomyosin is the biological TccC3 substrate. TccC3-ADP-ribosylated G-actin's affinity for profilin and thymosin-u03b24 was moderately affected by spontaneous polymerization in their presence, but not enough to entice spontaneous polymerization in their presence. TcC3 induced intense membrane blebbing in cultured cells, in accordance with the position of these and other tandem calponin-homology domain actin developers in the assembly of the cortical actin network. Overall, our findings indicate that TccC3 takes a complicated route on the cytoskeleton by affecting F-actin nucleation, recycling, and interaction with actin-binding proteins involved in the integration of actin filaments with each other and cellular components.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23137026


Sticking With It: ER-PM Membrane Contact Sites as a Coordinating Nexus for Regulating Lipids and Proteins at the Cell Cortex

The cortical endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane's contact sites between the cortical endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane provide a direct conduit for tiny molecule exchange and signaling between the cell's two largest membranes. In addition, other species-specific ER-PM tether proteins confer specific functional characteristics to both membranes at the cell cortex.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00675


CLASP promotes stable tethering of endoplasmic microtubules to the cell cortex to maintain cytoplasmic stability in Arabidopsis meristematic cells.

Following cytokinesis in plants, Endoplasmic MTs assemble on the nuclear surface, establishing a radial network that extends to the cell cortex, where they attach and embed into the cortical microtubule network. The MT-associated protein CLASP is enriched at EMT-cortex attachment sites, and is responsible for stable EMT tethering and cell formation in the cell cortex, according to this report.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198521


Emergent mechanics of actomyosin drive punctuated contractions and shape network morphology in the cell cortex.

During embryonic morphogenesis, filamentous actin and non-muscle myosin II motors trigger cell motility and cell shape shifts that guide cell motility and cell shape changes. We have created a two-dimensional computational model to investigate emergent phenomena of highly attached actomyosin arrays in the cell cortex to gain a better understanding of actomyosin in vivo. Our 2D model helps us to investigate the kinematics of filament polarity sorting, segregation of motors, and morphology of F-actin arrays that arise as the model structure and biophysical properties differ. Since intracellular actomyosin formations are believed to be regulated by localization of scaffold proteins that bind F-actin or their myosin motors, we also use our 2D model to recapitulate in vitro studies that have revealed complicated patterns of actomyosin that assemble from microcontact printing filaments and motor complexes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006344


Spatiotemporal development of coexisting wave domains of Rho activity in the cell cortex

Abstract The Rho family GTPases are molecular switches that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and cell movement by a complex spatiotemporal organization of their activity. Several co-existing regions of coherent propagation of actin waves in Patiria miniata oocytes under in vitro experimental conditions. Here we use computational modeling to investigate the origins and properties of such wave domains. The model reveals that the formation of wave domains requires a balance between the stimulation and inhibition in the Rho signaling pattern. In Patiria miniata and wild type Xenopus laevis results, accounting for a large intrinsic noise helped us to achieve good quantitative agreement between simulation dynamics in various parameter regimes of the model and variable wave dynamics. We developed an automated system of wave domain detection for quantitative comparison of simulated and experimental findings, which resulted in a dramatic reversal in the process of pattern formation in starfish oocytes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99029-x

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions