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Squamous cell carcinoma is a form of cancer that arises from specific cells known as squamous cells. Squamous cells are found in the outer layer of skin and in the mucous membranes, which are the moist tissues that line body cavities, such as the airways and intestines. In the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and throat, a head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma arises. HNSCC may occur in the throat, the middle part of the throat, the space behind the nose, the upper portion of the throat near the nasal cavity, the voicebox, or the lower portion of the throat near the larynx.
Basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer, is the most common form of skin cancer in people with Gorlin syndrome. Individuals with Gorlin syndrome are expected to develop basal cell carcinomas in adolescence or early adulthood. The number of basal cell carcinomas that develop during a person's lifetime varies among affected individuals. Some people with Gorlin syndrome never experience any basal cell carcinomas, while others may experience thousands of these cancers. Individuals with lighter skin are more likely to experience basal cell carcinomas than those with darker skin. Noncancerous tumors of the jaw also occur in the majority of people with Gorlin syndrome, known as keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Individuals with Gorlin syndrome have a higher risk of experiencing other tumors than the general population of other tumors. Ovarian fibromas are not thought to have an effect on a woman's ability to have children.
Most people who have a long-term tobacco use have a history of long-term smoking; however, the disease can also be present in people who have never smoked. According to the size of the affected cells when viewed under a microscope, lung cancer is generally divided into two types, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is quickly spreading beyond the lung by the time the cancer has been recognized, and in more than half of cases, the cancer has spread outside the lung. Non-small cell lung cancer can be divided into three main subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell lung carcinoma. Non-small cell lung cancers with no apparent indication of being adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas are included in this category.
Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is a hereditary condition that greatly raises the risk of getting a form of stomach cancer. Gastric cancer most commonly occurs in a person's late thirties or early forties, in HDGC, but it can develop anytime during adulthood. If diffuse gastric cancer is detected early, the survival rate is high; however, because this type of cancer is hidden underneath the stomach lining, it is usually not diagnosed until the cancer has become highly infectious. Some people with HDGC's genes, such as a form of breast cancer in women that begins in the milk-producing glands; prostate cancer; and colon and rectum cancers that are collectively referred to as colorectal cancer. The majority of people with HDGC have family members who have had one of the types of cancer associated with HDGC.
A chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 9 is deleted in each cell is a chromosomal deletion. More frequent victims have persistent developmental delays, academic disabilities, and learning difficulties, which make life more difficult. In people with a 9q22. 3 microdeletion, seizures have been reported for the first time. In addition, affected individuals can also have prominent facial features such as a prominent forehead with vertical skin creases, upward- or downward-slanting eyes, a short nose, and a long gap between the nose and upper lip. The typical signs of Gorlin syndrome also appear in 9q22. 3 microdeletions. Basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer, is the most common form of skin cancer in people with Gorlin syndrome. Noncancerous tumors of the jaw, which can cause facial swelling and tooth displacement, are common in people with this condition. Some people with Gorlin syndrome have a medulloblastoma and a type of benign tumor called a fibroma that occurs in the heart or in a woman's ovaries, as well as a fibroma. Other characteristics of Gorlin syndrome include small depressions in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; unusually large head shape with a prominent forehead; and skeletal anomalies involving the spine, ribs, or skull.
Cutaneous leiomyomas may be the same shade as the surrounding skin or they may be darker. Most women with HLRCC also have uterine leiomyomas. Although uterine fibroids are common in the general population, women with HLRCC tend to have numerous large fibroids that appear earlier than those in the general population. About 10% to 16 percent of people with HLRCC have a form of kidney disease called renal cell carcinoma. Less back pain, blood in the urine, or a mass in the kidney that can be felt on physical examination may be among renal cell cancer's signs and symptoms. Some people with renal cell carcinoma have no signs appear until the disease is advanced. People with HLRCC are often diagnosed with kidney cancer in their forties.
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