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This paper proposes a hybrid tractor energy management system to solve the issue of high energy consumption caused by significant load fluctuation of the tractor in field operation, which is primarily explained in this article. The energy management scheme based on the Haar wavelet and logic rule, and multi-layer decoupling of high-frequency, low-frequency, and steady-state load demand signals of load demand power is intended to enable multi-layer decoupling of high-frequency, low-frequency, and steady-state signals of load demand power. The hydrogen fuel cell's effectiveness is the highest in comparison to single-layer control methods such as fuzzy control and power-following control, and the multi-layer control scheme allocates the demand power more effectively, relative to single-layer control tactics such as fuzzy control and power-following control. The average efficiency of the hydrogen fuel cell was up by 2. 8 percent and 1. 2%, respectively. Based on meeting the vehicle load required by the entire vehicle load, it has been demonstrated that a multi-layer control plan considering power fluctuation can raise the vehicle's efficiency.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010151
For short and long-term energy storage, renewable energies must succeed in replacing fossil fuels, and large-scale and cost-effective solutions are needed for short and long-term energy storage. The use of a concentration flow cell that is based on cheap and abundant materials is a potentially cost-effective method of storing large amounts of energy. We recommend that aqueous iron chloride be used as a reacting solvent on carbon electrodes. This proportion difference between iron II and iron III is used to fuel the reaction when discharging. Both solutions use iron chloride as a catalyst in this respect. In this respect, it is a concentration-driven flow cell redox battery that uses iron chloride.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041109
This paper seeks to find the most suitable configuration of a ship's power system that will produce the lowest CO2 emissions while still considering the number of battery cycles. The ship that was evaluated in this work is a Platform Supply Vessel that is used to support oil and gas offshore platforms transporting products, equipment, and staff. HOMER software was used to calculate the CO 2 emissions for each of the new hybrid configurations' simulations. The proposed solutions include auxiliary generators, three types of battery, and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell with different sizes of hydrogen tanks. In comparison to the previous versions, the latest configurations are classified according to the CO 2 reduction that has been achieved in comparison to the original system. As a result, the most notable reduction of CO 2 emissions by 10. 69 percent was achieved.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062184
The power management plan is based on the role that should be played by each component of the hybrid power source. In a framework of multi-objective optimization, a genetic algorithm and Pareto front analysis optimize the power management plan, considering the hydrogen consumption, the battery loading, and the acceleration results.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en8076302
A voltage drop compensation scheme for hybrid hydrogen fuel cell battery systems, with a hydrogen recirculation powering a forklift, is investigated in this paper. Impurities can be mixed with the hydrogen fuel during recirculating hydrogen fuel to recycle hydrogen that has not responded correctly at the device. To prevent system shutdown by lowering voltage drop, this paper suggests a voltage drop compensation scheme based on an electrical control algorithm. Voltage drop is primarily attributed to three main factors: the amount of pure hydrogen supply; the temperature of fuel cell stacks; and the current density to fuel cell catalysts. The voltage drop is minimized by decreasing output voltage, and the compensation method for a DC⁻DC converter connected to the fuel cell stack's output is reduced by decreasing output current, so the voltage drop is minimized by decreasing output current.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110331
In this context, integrating fuel cells as power sources in hybrid energy systems may be a neat option due to their high availability and low emissions. The energy management approach for various power sources has a huge effect on fuel consumption, dynamic results, and service life of these power sources. To maximize system effectiveness, this EMS strategy establishes the operational point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system's effectiveness. Simulation results confirm the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en7052799
Investigations are also carried out into the thermal behavior of the LIR2450 micro coin cell haivng capacity of 120 mAh, with internal short circuit by penetrating element in the present paper. The experimental coin cell discharge investigation was conducted and validated with numerical analysis within ±5. 0%. The effect of penetrating element size, location of penetrating element, charge charge, school of charge, discharge rate, short-circuit resistance, and heat transfer coefficient are investigated on maximum coin cell temperature and heat generation rate are determined by analysis. Maximum heat generation rate and maximum temperature of the coin cell were observed by the highest-penetrating element size of 3. 5 mm with position at the center of the coin cell with 100 percent SOC. In addition, dimensionless short-circuit resistance is obtained at the highest value of the dimensionless heat generation rate. The paper provides detailed information on the thermal behaviour of the lithium-ion cell in the case of a thermal abuse condition with an internal short circuit by the penetrating element.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12020246
The Hybrid electric aircraft have the ability to minimize air travel's emissions. The proposed battery directly onto the AC phases of the motor's battery, as well as a suitable switching circuit superimposes the DC voltage of the battery on the AC voltage of the motor phase, resulting in a voltage increase during a high-power demand flight phase.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217350
This paper introduces a new Fuel Cell Fuel Consumption Minimization Program for Hybrid Electric Vehicles powered by a fuel cell and an energy storage unit in the hopes of reducing as much as possible hydrogen consumption while keeping the battery's State Of Charge.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en15030738
Fuel cell vehicles should monitor the energy management between two energy sources for fuel efficiency, using the stored electricity in a battery or a fuel cell unit. According to the battery SOC and power requirements, the control scheme determines the on/off moment of a fuel cell system and the right modulation ratio of the turned-on fuel cell system.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062131
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