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Cell 16 - PLOS

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Last Updated: 10 January 2023

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Microtubule-associated protein 1B is implicated in stem cell commitment and nervous system regeneration in planarians

Our results show a correlation between a MAP1B factor and stem cells, demonstrating a role of the nervous system in non-cell autonomous cell regulation of planarian stem cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278966


Cytokine and phenotypic cell profiles in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani

Background: The innate immune mediators are likely to influence leishmaniasis' clinical phenotype by primary responses that limit or facilitate the spread of the parasite, as well as modulating adaptive immunity. This research looked at the response of key innate immune cells in a focus that routinely reports localised cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani, a species that causes visceral disease. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived macrophages and dendritic cells from patients with LCL and healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic regions were stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen. Patient-derived macrophages and dendritic cells exhibited higher levels of both pro and anti-inflammatory mediators in comparison to controls with the best discrimination for active disease observed at 72 hours. Immune responses from cells isolated from controls in endemic and non-endemic regions did not differ significantly from each other.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0270722


MYB and ELF3 differentially modulate labor-inducing gene expression in myometrial cells

As smooth muscle cells within the uterine muscle, or myometrium, shift from a functionally dormant to a dynamically contractile phenotype at the end of the pregnancy period, smooth muscle contractions are initiated. During spontaneous term labor, MYB and ELF3 genes have elevated transcript expression levels in mouse and human myometrial tissues. During preterm labor induced by progesterone antagonist mifepristone's stimulation, the expression of both genes was also elevated in mouse myometrium, but not during infection-simulating preterm labor induced by intrauterine infusion of lipopolysaccharide. Both MYB and ELF3 genes promote labor-driving gene promoter proliferation, although in strange ways: In addition, MYB and ELF3 proteins influence labor-driving gene promoter recruitment, but in surprising ways: Gja1 and Fos promoter activation rises in the presence of MYB and ELF3 decreases in the presence of ELF3 protein promoter activity, although in surprisingly contradicting circumstances: both MYB and ELF3 proteins influence gene promoter.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0271081


CCT6A knockdown suppresses osteosarcoma cell growth and Akt pathway activation in vitro

CCT6A messenger ribonucleic acid expression is up in osteosarcoma tissue and cells, according to the study by R2's online genomic analysis and visualization system. CCT6A small interfering RNA transfection into cultured osteosarcoma cells at the G0/G1 phases has resulted in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell survival, cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell death, as well as cell cycle progression.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0279851


Systematic analysis of cilia characteristics and Hedgehog signaling in five immortal cell lines

The primary cilium in vertebrates is responsible for cellular response modeling human disease, according to Hedgehog, who is also implicated in ciliopathies; however, we did not know which immortal cell lines are the most suitable for modeling pathway responses in human disease; therefore, we systematically evaluated Hh in five commercially available, immortal mammalian cell lines: ARPE-19, HEK293T, hTERT RPE-1, NIH/3T3, and SH-SY These results show that human hTERT RPE-1 cells and murine NIH/3T3 cells, but not ARPE-19 and HEK293T cells, are suitable for modeling the role of Hh signaling in ciliopathies.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0266433


Ectopic localization of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2-expressing cells in the normal human adrenal gland

According to a recent review, the strong line delineation between zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata has been restored, implying that this boundary is no longer a compartment boundary. The advent of the adrenal cortex is demonstrated by the gradual replacement of CYP11B2-expressing cells in the histological ZG by CYP11B1-expressing cells. CYP11B2 positive cells were discovered in 70% of our samples, immunofluorescence studies revealed the presence of isolated or clusters of CYP11B2 positive cells in the ZF and zona reticularis. Mineralocorticoid- and glucocorticoid-producing cells are distributed throughout the cortex and medulla, making it difficult to determine whether a cell or group of cells are a unique tool in deciphering the changes occurring in adrenal glands, particularly during aging. They also report that, in humans, the steroidogenic cell phenotype defined by function is a stable feature, and that, therefore, the functional zonetion in function can be not solely maintained by cell lineage conversion/migration.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0279682


Loss of Slc12a2 specifically in pancreatic β-cells drives metabolic syndrome in mice

Subjects with metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are all at a higher risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as a group of medical disorders characterized by obesity, impaired glucose metabolism, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension are among the risks of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Mouse mice lacking the diuretic-sensitive Na+K+2Clu2212cotransporter-1 Nkc1 in insulin-secreting u03b2-cells of the pancreatic islet have reduced in vitro insulin responses to glucose, according to report. When fed a traditional chow diet ad libitum, Nkc1u03b2KO mice also gain weight and progressive metabolic syndrome. Because of these potential mechanisms, chronic diuretic use may have adverse effects on metabolic homeostasis in vulnerable people, our results back up the novel's assertion that primary u03b2-cell mutations related to Nkc-regulated intracellular Clu2212homeostasis and u03b2-cell growth can result in metabolic syndrome formation, leading to the appearance of metabolic syndrome.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0279560


Polarization and cell-fate decision facilitated by the adaptor Ste50p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Many proteins localize on the plasma membrane of a yeast cell's cell membrane to convert it into a polarized shmoo system in response to pheromone. We discovered that Ste50p patches on the cell cortex mark the point of shmoo origination, but these patches could move and remain connected with the growing shmoo tip in a time-dependent manner until maturation. We used quantitative variations in Ste50p expression to correlate with cell-cell phenotypic heterogeneity, demonstrating Ste50p participation in the cell differentiation decision. These findings reveal Ste50p to be a participant in the early smoo development process, suggesting that Ste50p is involved with the polarization in the onset of polarization and may play a role in regulating the polarized growth of shmoo during pheromone reaction.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278614


Rebamipide treatment ameliorates obesity phenotype by regulation of immune cells and adipocytes

Rebamipide treatment controls lipid metabolism and inflammation, resulting in weight loss in obese mice, according to our previous reports. Rebamipide therapy improved the body weight, liver weight, and blood glucose levels in comparison to control mice, as well as reduced both glucose and insulin resistance. Fat accumulation has been shown to stimulate pro-inflammatory disease in mice. In epidermal fat tissue, treatment with rebamipide reduced the presence of inflammatory cells such as Th2, Th17, and M1 macrophages, as well as increased anti-inflammatory Treg and M2 macrophages.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0277692


Clinical and laboratory characterization of adult sickle cell anemia patients in Kinshasa

Background: Sickle cell anemia is a monogenic hemoglobinopathy associated with acute and chronic illnesses in Sub-Saharan Africa, with the highest prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the prevalence of clinical and hematological signs in a cohort of adults with SCA in Kinshasa, central Africa's capital. Methods: In a hospital dedicated to SCA care in Kinshasa, a cross-sectional research was conducted. Results: The research group was made up of 166 genetically confirmed SCA patients. The severity score was inversely correlated with the fetal hemoglobin level. Leg ulcers were more common in males than in females, and they were correlated with the number of days of hospitalization based on the number of days. Conclusion: Chronic disease in this small, hospital-based groups of adults with SCA was extremely rare, which could be due to survival bias.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0278478

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions