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Cell 16 - PLOS

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Last Updated: 10 September 2022

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Design and validation of HIV peptide pools for detection of HIV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells

HIV epitopes from the HIV molecular immunology database were turned into Class I and Class II HIV megapools. We compared HIV responses in HIV pre-antiretroviral therapy and post-ART patients with HIV, and we compared these responses to 15 controls without HIV. In addition, we compared the Class I and Class II HIV MPs to commercially available HIV gag peptide pools. Overall, HIV-specific CD4+ T cells were found in 21/35 HIV positive samples and 0/15 HIV negative samples. In 17/35 HIV positive samples and 0/15 HIV negative samples, an HIV-specific CD8+ T cell was identified in HIV-specific HIV1+ T cells. Here, we discovered HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in people on and off ART, but not in people with HIV.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0268370


Imp interacts with Lin28 to regulate adult stem cell proliferation in the Drosophila intestine

Cellular homeostasis requires precise monitoring of all aspects of stem cell function: cell proliferation, fate determination, and differentiation. RNA binding proteins are key components of the regulatory network that regulate gene expression in stem cells to maintain self-renewal and long-term homeostasis in adult tissues. Although several RBP genes can have been characterized in various stem cell populations, more elusive is how these interact and are embedded in genetic networks. In the adult Drosophila midgut, we show that the conserved RNA binding protein IGF2 mRNA binding protein is present in intestinal stem cells and progenitors. Imp is shown to maintain stem cell proliferative activity under normal epithelial turnover and tissue injury, according to our results. Imp and Lin28 are part of a larger gene regulatory network that regulates gene expression in ISCs and requires epithelial homeostasis, according to Altogether's results. For these reasons, several devices regulate stem cell division's ability to divide and give rise to functional daughter cells. We used the Drosophila fruitfly as a genetically amenable experimental model to explore the role of a conserved protein, the IGF2 mRNA binding protein, in adult intestinal stem cell differentiation. We found that stem cell proliferation under normal conditions and as a result of tissue damage, and that it is absolutely necessary for stem cell proliferation under normal conditions and in response to tissue damage. Our research is shedding new light on organisms' long-lived stem cell function.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1010385


Echovirus 11 infection induces pyroptotic cell death by facilitating NLRP3 inflammasome activation

Echovirus 11, a positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a positive-strand RNA virus. However, it is also unknown if and how ECHO 11 promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We isolated a clinical strain of ECHO 11 from the stool of an ECHO 11-infected newborn patient with necrotizing hepatitis in this research. In addition, we reported that ECHO 11 induced IL-1u03b2 secretion and pyroptosis in cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. To promote the inflammasome complex assembly, the ECHO 11 2B protein was required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation by interacting with NLRP3 to aid the inflammasome complex assembly. In vivo, the ECHO 11 2B's version of ECHO 112B, has also produced NLRP3 inflammation in the murine liver. Our results, together, reveal a mechanism by which ECHO 11 promotes inflammatory reactions by inducing NFRP3 inflammasome, providing new insight into the pathogenesis of ECHO 11 infection. Human echovirus 11 belongs to the Enterovirus genus from the family Picornavirida, and it can cause severe acute hepatitis in infants with elevated morbidity and mortality. However, information regarding the pathogenesis of ECHO 11 infection is limited. It's unclear if and how ECHO 11 induces NLRP3 inflammation-inflammasome activation. This work is the first demonstration that ECHO 11 can cause inflammatory responses by triggering NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis. In cells and in vivo, ECHO 11-encoded 2B protein was discovered to inflame NLRP3 inflammasome, and in vivo, and the association between 2B and NLRP3 was required for the inflammasome complex assembly. Our findings reveal a mechanism by which ECHO 11 induces inflammatory responses and demonstrate a new function of ECHO 11 2B.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1010787


Bioaffinity-based surface immobilization of antibodies to capture endothelial colony-forming cells

However, most current antibody-based stent surface modification plans, however, rely on antibody adsorption or direct conjugation via amino or carboxyl groups, which leads to poor control of antibody surface concentration and/or molecular orientation, as well as cell bioavailability for cell capture. We investigate the effectiveness of a bioaffinity-based surface modification approach to immobilize antibodies against endothelial cell surface antigens. The protein G polypeptide grafting of the protein G polypeptide was more effective than surface adsorption in immobilizing antibodies at a high density based on fluorophore-labeled secondary antibody detection, as well as endothelial colony-forming cell capture by anti-CD144 antibodies.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0269316


Epitope-Evaluator: An interactive web application to study predicted T-cell epitopes

Multiple immunoinformatic devices have been developed to identify T-cell epitopes from protein amino acid sequences for various key histocompatibility complex alleles. These prediction tools produce hundreds of potential peptide candidates that require further processing, but not graphical or not friendly for non-programming users. These prediction services produce hundreds of potential peptide candidates that need further processing; however, these prediction services are either not graphical or not friendly for non-programming users. Epitope-Evaluator contains six devices that enable the delivery of epitopes across a select group of MHC alleles, epitope preservation, and preservation of epitopes, as well as their distribution and location within antigens. The Epitope-Evaluator uses a fasta file of protein sequences as input as well as the output prediction file generated by any predictor. The HLA-B*40, HLA-B*27:05, and HLA-B*07:02 identified fewer epitopes from the SARS-CoV-2 proteome than any other MHC Class I alleles using Epitope-Evaluator. We also found shared epitopes between Delta, Omicron, and Wuhan Spike variants, as well as variant-specific epitopes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273577


Tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells exhibit reactivity with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin

Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational changes of cell surface proteins involved in cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and treatment resistance. However, no information is known about glycosylation as the source of breast cancer cell resistance to endocrine therapy. After electrophoretic separation of the glycoproteins, we performed lectin blotting experiments to demonstrate differential lectin binding to cellular glycoproteins. Compared to tamoxifen-sensitive cells, the membrane fractions of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells of Lectin microarray analysis revealed that increased binding to Wisteria floribunda agglutinin in compared to tamoxifen-sensitive cells. Different WFA binding was found by glycoproteins, according to the results of mass spectrometry, several membrane glycoproteins, such as CD166 and integrin beta-1, were identified as candidates contributing to increased WFA binding, contributing to increased WFA binding. In patients with distant metastasis following tamoxifen therapy compared to non-relapsed patients, robust WFA staining was more common in clinical samples.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273513


Nicotinic receptor components of amyloid beta 42 proteome regulation in human neural cells

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegeneration disorder that is often accompanied by elevated synthesis of the neurotoxic peptide amyloid-beta 128 in the brain. Extracellular Au03b242 bounds to various cell surface receptors, including the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and stimulates pathways of cell death, leading to cell death, according to studies. The nAChR is now considered a promising drug target for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. The results reveal new ways of amyloid toxicity in A03B2 responses, providing evidence on mitochondrial proteins' involvement in Au03b242 responses and nAChR mediated amyloid toxication.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0270479


CCT196969 effectively inhibits growth and survival of melanoma brain metastasis cells

Despite recent advancements in the treatment of melanoma brain metastasis, immunotherapy resistance, and disease relapse are all unsolved obstacles. CCT1969696969 is a SRC family kinase and Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase inhibitor with demonstrated results in primary melanoma cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the effects of CCT1969696969696969 in multiple melanoma brain metastasis cell lines using in vitro cell line assays. In patients with treatment-nau00efve and resistant melanoma brain metastasis, further in vivo research should be done to determine the treatment potential of CCT1969696969.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0273711


TMExplorer: A tumour microenvironment single-cell RNAseq database and search tool

Many cancer types are available, with scRNA-seq reports from various cancer types available, but we don't have a comprehensive database to gather and display related TME results in a user friendly format. Results: To facilitate TME examination, we therefore developed a TME scRNA-seq database and created the R package TMExplorer. The TME can be analyzed using scRNA-seq in a way that is streamlined and allows for easy integration into already existing scRNA-seq analysis pipelines.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0272302


Fezf2-positive fork cell-like neurons in the mouse insular cortex

Unique morphologies distinguish the fork cell and von Economo neuron, which are present in the insular cortex and/or anterior cingulate cortex, and/or the anterior cingulate cortex. The fork cell's shapes are not pyramidal; the fork cell has two primary apical dendrites, and the von Economo neurons are spindle-shaped; We here inquire if equivalent neurons exist in the mouse's insular cortex. In these morphologically distinct neurons, human, Fezf2 has been found to be highly expressed, and, as a result, we investigated the detailed morphology of Fezf2-positive neurons in the mouse brain. Although von Economo-like neurons were not identified, Fezf2-positive fork cell-like neurons with two distinct apical dendrites were discovered. Such neurons are identified as holding neurons in this article. Several molecules, including neuromedin B and gastrin-releasing peptide that are known to be localized in mouse fork cells and/or von Economo cells in human, were localized in the mouse's insular cortex, according to our further research.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0274170

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions