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Cell (Biology) - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 10 September 2022

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Anterior gradient proteins in gastrointestinal cancers: from cell biology to pathophysiology

Most of the digestive tract's organs are made up of mystery epithelia that must be used to produce their functions by special molecular machines. The anterior gradient proteins, which make up AGR1, AGR2, and AGR3, are all related to the protein disulfide isomerase family and are involved in latent and transmembrane protein biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. AGR2 overexpression has recently been attributed to a poor prognosis in digestive cancers. AGR2 has also been involved in epithelial homeostasis. The deletion of AGR2 in mice results in severe diffuse gut inflammation in mice, but in inflammatory bowel diseases, the secretion of AGR2 in the extracellular milieu aids in the reshaping of the cellular microenvironment. We summarize the AGR family proteins' activity in digestive disorders, their presence in the digestive tract, and digestive oncology.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-022-02452-1


The mini player with diverse functions: extracellular vesicles in cell biology, disease, and therapeutics

Extracellular vesicles are tiny biological nanovesicles with a diameter of around 30 to 100 nm and are introduced into the extracellular matrix of many cell types and in biofluids. In many ways, the change of EV relevance from being a garbage bag to being a key player in critical physiological and pathological conditions has been pivotal. EVs were recently confirmed to play a vital role in stem cell biology and cancer progression via intercellular communication, contributing to organ formation and cancer progression. This review focuses on the substantial research that has been done so far in the role of EVs and stem cells in the role of their niche and cell communication among various germ layers of developmental biology. For EV-related research in stem cell and cancer biology, we give you future directions.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13238-021-00863-6


The Golgi complex: An organelle that determines urothelial cell biology in health and disease

The latter are the most abundant membrane proteins in differentiated superficial urothelial cells' apical plasma membrane, and they contribute to the permeability barrier in addition to well-developed tight junctions by their structural organization and by inhibiting endocytosis from the apical plasma membrane. Although fragmentation of the Golgi complex has been identified with mitosis and apoptosis, we found that the process of Golgi fragmentation is essential for the delivery of such specific urothelial differentiation cargoes to the plasma membrane as well as cell-u2013 cell communication. In this article, we will explore the current known contribution of the Golgi complex to the establishment of the bloodu2013urine barrier in normal UCs and how it could be instrumental in the loss of the bloodu2013urine barrier in cancer.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00418-022-02121-0


Lipid Raft Facilitated Receptor Organization and Signaling: A Functional Rheostat in Embryonic Development, Stem Cell Biology and Cancer

Over the past 50 years, biological perceptions of plasma membrane organization and dynamics have gradually evolved. Multiple signaling nexuses in eukaryotic cells are intractable by the dynamics of plasma membrane membrane. Specifically, herein, advances on the role of lipid rafts in biological function and homeostasis are explored, specifically how rafts dynamically harbour signaling proteins, such as GPCRs, catalytic receptors, and ionotropic receptors within it and orchestrate multiple signal pathways. In the developmental proceedings, signaling is intended for the patterning of the whole organism, which differs from fully developed organisms' somatic cell physiology and signaling. The roles of plasma membrane lipid rafts in lineage specificity, early embryonic development, stem cell maintenance are all emerging. From pre-implantation to post-implantation, stem cell, and embryonic development, we've outlined and discussed the roles of lipid rafts in embryonic development, cell signaling, and gene expression during embryonic development.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-022-10448-3

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions