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Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune enteropathy that affects around 1% of the population. Gluten ingestion causes an immune reaction in genetically sensitive patients, resulting in intestinal and extraintestinal disease manifestations. The only approved treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet with micronutrient supplementation. Primary care providers must be able to identify screening signs, recommend patients appropriately, and provide appropriate patient education and follow-up.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000824940.10046.5d
In children with celiac disease, the potential effect of maternal breast milk composition is uncertain. The aim of our research was to compare the microbiota composition and the presence of immune markers in breast milk from mothers whose offspring had the genetic predisposition to CD, as well as whether they did or did not develop CD during follow-up for the first three years of life. Maternal breast milk samples [CD children and healthy children] were collected three months after delivery. Breast milk samples in the CD group were significantly higher than the Shannon 'H' diversity index and phylotype abundance. In conclusion, the microbiota in breast milk from mothers of genetically predisposed offspring, as well as a different bacterial species, was more prominent and varied, as compared to those of unaffected offspring.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10679-x
The prevalence of celiac disease in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis is expected to be between 2 and 8. 8 percent. A gluten-free diet in patients with CD has been shown to have a positive effect on CAIT. Following a GFD, a systematic review was done to obtain more consistent results about the change in thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid-specific antibodies levels in CD patients. In total, 50 patients with both CD and CAIT as well as 45 controls were reported. Only in a part of the studies could show the effects of a GFD on the thyroid hormonal and immunological profiles. These findings suggest further research, ideally randomized, in order to properly investigate the potential association between GFD and thyroid homeostasis. The amount of evidence is not yet high enough to warrant GFD to patients with CAIT.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081681
Patients with type 1 diabetes are at a higher risk of developing celiac disease. The aim of the research was to determine the accuracy of celiac-specific human leukocyte antigen haplotype and the rs3130484 version of the MSH5 gene, a previously reported non-HLA variant of CD in the Polish population and a first-line screening for CD in T1D pediatric patients. Statistical sensitivity of HLA testing from 34. 7 percent to 68. 8% was boosted by combining the rs3130484 with HLA-DQ2/HLA-DQ8 typing, with increased sensitivity of HLA testing from 32. 7% to 68. 7%, with accuracy ranging from 50 percent to 78 percent. Combination of the MSH5 gene and HLA testing in combination increases both the sensitivity and predictive value of the test's reliability, as well as the test's predictive value, but the test results are not encouraging for recommending such testing as the first-line screening for CD in T1D patients.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082223
Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disease caused by gluten exposure in genetically vulnerable individuals. Macrophages are immune cells that appear as pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages or as anti-inflammatory alternatively activated macrophages. We previously reported that the phenotype of macrophages isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients and CB2 disease is linked to several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The first aim of this research was to determine the phenotype of macrophages isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients and CB2 reduced function. The second objective was to investigate the effects of CB2 pharmacological modulation on CD macrophage polarization. Moreover, we investigated the role of CD macrophages in causing intestinal barrier damage and the possibility of restoring their functionality by modifying their polarization by an in vitro model of "immunocompetent gut. " In addition, we had CD M1 macrophages in causing CDM1 macrophage damage, which is also known as CDM1.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040874
To look into possible biochemical abnormalities associated with celiac disease antibody positivity in a primary health care setting and subsequently identify predictors that could reduce diagnostic delay and underdiagnosis of CD. This observational cohort study included measures of CD antibodies in the Copenhagen Primary Care Laboratory database from 2000 to 2015; CD antibody positivity was defined as tissue transglutaminase antibody IgG or IgG 7 kU/L and/or deamidated gliadin peptide antibody IgG 10 kU/L. We investigated differences among people with positive and negative CD antibody testing results related to biochemical tests that were performed six months before and one month after the date of the CD antibody test was performed. Among individuals referred to CD antibody testing, several biochemical abnormalities connected with CD antibody positivity were identified with CD antibody positivity.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-10492-6
Celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disease caused by genetic intolerance of genetically vulnerable individuals after eating gluten-containing grains and their products. Furthermore, the design and function of gluten peptides related to CD, gluten testing procedures, the effects of processing on gluten and gluten-free diets are emphatically reviewed. In addition, the current CD research limitations are also addressed.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2064811
As a result of refractory CeD, Intestinal lymphoma can develop. If a patient with CeD is symptomatic despite a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months, and does not recover with extensive villous atrophy, refractory CeD may be present. The second of the two forms of refractory CeD has abnormal monoclonal intraepithelial lymphocytes and can be classified as pre-lymphoma, and the next snapshot that will be released is enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v13.i3.200
However, 10%-15% of ET patients are triple-negative, meaning patients have no identifiable mutations. We present a young patient with no previous medical history screened for persistent thrombocytosis. She had positive antibodies for celiac disease and the diagnosis was confirmed by a small bowel biopsy, which is the only diagnostic device for diagnosing celiac disease in adults. Before going to more expensive tests, we recommend screening triple-negative ET patients for celiac disease.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.5197
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