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In this regard, it is also shown that these difficulties can be solved within the numerical scheme for finding the reduced five-equation model by numerically replacing the Wood speed of sound for the estimated Riemann solver HLLC with the monotonic mixture of sound for a transport five-equation model. The effect of the numerical replacement is also limited to the interface, with the apparent benefit of monotonic behavior of the speed of sound in the interface. Even though a much faster rate of sound like the numerical substitute above for solving a six-equation model or the frozen speed of sound for designing a six-equation model is used for the estimates of wave speeds in the HLLC scheme, it is pointed out and explained why acoustics in the numerical solutions are still propagate at the Wood speed of sound. An alternative algebraic scheme for treating the non-conservative term in a reduced five-equation model for mechanical equilibrium of a liquid-vapor mixture is also explored by enforcing the thermo equilibrium at the same time. The numerical simulations reveal an interesting mechanism of shock generation by acoustics in water as a result of phase change.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1850324

Relativistic heavy ion collisions result in nuclear-sized droplets of quark-gluon plasma with a nearly inviscid hydrodynamic expansion. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, smaller collision structures such as p + Au, d + Au, and 3 He + Au, as well as p + Pb and high-multiplicity p + p at the Large Hadron Collider can result in even smaller droplets of QGP. If so, the classic time evolution model of heavy ion collisions may be extended to these smaller systems.

Source link: https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1671532

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