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Background: Structural neuroimaging MR volumetric changes can predict MCI to AD progression. To determine memory performance between April 2012 and May 2013, we used the Mini Mental State Examination as a measure of general cognitive function and the Auditory Verbal Total Learning Test as a measure of memory performance. Patients with Alzheimer's disease had a significant decrease in Alzheimer's disease in patients with Alzheimer's disease as compared to MCI and control samples. According to elderly control and MMSE results, there was a positive correlation between grey matter volume reduction in MCI and AD in relation to elder control and MMSE scores. Compared to MCI and control patients, patients with Alzheimer's disease were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Both AD and MCI were found to significant gray matter reductions in comparison to healthy elderly controls, but no significant differences were found between MCI patients or AD patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of caudate nucleus and hippocampal volume decrease in AD and MCI in connection with elderly monitoring were all higher than those in entorhinal cortex. Conclusion: Semi-automated MR volumetric measurements can be used to determine atrophy in hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and entorhinal cortex, which also aided in the discrimination of healthy elderly control patients from AD and MCI patients and predicted clinical decline of MCI resulting in greater efficiency of clinical interventions, delay institutionalization, and enhance cognition and behavioral symptoms.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrnm.2013.12.011
Abstract Background The caudate nucleus is clearly segmented in magnetic resonance images of the brain, and is of particular concern in the study of developmental disorders. However, prior atlas data may not accurately reflect the object of interest properly. We adapt the Graph Cut model to make it suitable for segmenting small, low-contrast structures, such as the caudate nucleus, by defining new energy function and boundary potentials. Results We used the novel CaudateCut method to segmentation of the caudate nucleus to a new group of 39 pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and 40 control patients, as well as to a national database of 18 subjects. Conclusions CaudateCut produces segmentation results that are comparable to gold-standard segmentations and that are useful in the investigation of differentiating neuroanatomic abnormalities in healthy controls and pediatric ADHD.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925X-10-105
Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a non-invasive way to investigate Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder's neural correlates, the most common form of preventable mental retardation worldwide. Our approach employs an Active Shape Model, which is used to determine shape variation from manually segmented training data. To establish point correspondence between training models, a discrete Geometrically Deformable Model is used. Experiments were carried out during the ASM segmentation process's image search phase in order to determine the method that was most appropriate to segmentation of the hippocampus and caudate nucleus. This heuristic technique improves image segmentation by exploiting features specific to the target environment, such as a relatively uniform tissue color in target structures. ASMs that use the heuristic image search algorithm produce the most accurate segmentations, according to the findings.
During value determinations of likes and dislikes, arousal responses simultaneously emerge and influence reaction times and the frequency of behavioral mistakes. While emotion-based variables are involved in decision making, it is also unknown if neural responses in the CN indicate decision-related variables underlying choice. Beta results showed generally positive or negative correlations with the ChV, whereas beta responses revealed almost exclusively positive correlations with the ChV. We investigated arousal representation by concentrating on beta reactions and unit operations that encoded the frequency of omission errors, which were positively related to arousal and learning. We show that the beta responses predominantly showed selective activation for the high-valence and low-arousal conditions, despite unit experiments simultaneously recording in the same experiments according to the chosen value and other aspects of decision-making under approach avoidance conflict.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00089
This prediction error illustrates the difference between how much reward was predicted and how much money was earned. The latest report used functional Magnetic Resonance imaging to investigate the role of caudate nucleus in breaches of expectation. Participants were taught to perform a sequence of whole-body movements according to auditory cues prior to starting the fMRI study. They watched movies of a dancer producing the same sequences either according to the cue or not during the fMRI session. This activation was flanked by activity in posterior superior temporal sulcus, the temporo-parietal junction, and a nearby angular gyrus, a network that could connect the deviating movement to the caudate nucleus, although frontal areas may reflect more realistic adaptations of the current forecast. Two control comparisons found that alternative interpretations of caudate activity related either to the saliency of threats of mistrust or to behavioral adaptation could be excluded by two control comparisons.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00038
Beside its motor functions, the caudate nucleus, the basal ganglia's main input system, is also sensitive to various sensory modalities. Two cats' CN of two cats in a visual fixation scheme using static and dynamic stimuli were recorded and processed with extracellular multielectrode recordings. The PAN and TAN neurons were particularly sensitive to static stimuli, while the HFN neurons responded more to changes in the physical environment, i. e. The HFNs were the most responsive to visual stimulation; their reactions were stronger than those of the PANs and TANs; their responses were more alert than those of the PANs and TANs. Both the static and the dynamic components of the visual information are represented in the CN, according to our findings. In addition, these findings reveal the first piece of evidence on optical flow processing in the CN, which, in more general terms, shows the potential role of this system in dynamic visual information processing.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142526
Poorly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references are the most deadly accidents in GM General Aviation. In making a "land" versus "do not land" decision, High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision versus a "do not land" decision. During a "land" versus a "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline, brain function in bilateral caudate nucleus was investigated for the main benefits of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" selection with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. Compared to Moderate Expertise pilots, High Expertise pilots showed less activation in the bilateral nucleus when making landing decisions. These results reveal an increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots, as shown by these results. During an instrument approach, the pilot is involved in extensive testing of flight instruments while also monitoring specific physical references for making landing decisions.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112607
Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder share many common aetiological and symptomatic characteristics, implying that they can be included in a common spectrum. We recently reported a significant decrease in calretinin-immunopositive interneuronal density in patients with ASD with a CN with ASD, but we saw no change in the number of neuropeptide Y-immunopositive neurons. Consequently, and since SCH and ASD share common characteristics, here we tested the hypothesis that CR-ip neurons in the CN has decreased in patients with SCH. In six patients with schizophrenia and six control subjects, we used immunohistochemistry and qPCR for CR and NPY. We found a 38 percent decrease in the number of all CR-ip interneurons in patients with SCH, owing to the absence of the small CR-ip interneurons.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2020.581685
Introduction To the substantia n. . . . pars compacta, there are progressive declines of dopamine containing neurons in Parkinson's disease. Conclusions We found a change in the caudate nucleus of treated monkeys following a continuous 1-methyl-4phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine treatment of Parkinson's disease in a granular aspartic protease treatment. The number of lysosomes in cadacerium brain tissue increased in tandem with the rise in Cathepsin D in neurons, according to a caudate nucleus brain biopsy study. In vitro overexpression of Cathepsin D in a human neuroblastoma cell line resulted in a significant rise in the number of the lysosomes. We looked at apoptotic markers and discovered a strong correlation between Cathepsin D overexpression and apoptosis. Conclusions We have identified pathological shifts in the caudate nucleus, a frequent site of disease progression due to damage to the substantia n. . . . experiment leading to experimental Parkinson's disease.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/1750-1326-6-52
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