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Patients with infantile esotropia were shown abnormal brain structural and functional characteristics. In IE patients and their healthy controls, the SC-FC coupling for global connectome, short connectome, and long connectome was investigated, as well as those of healthy controls. In IE patients, the Pearson correlation between coupling measures and strabismus degree was investigated, but the political impact of age was also investigated through hierarchical regression analysis. In left-caudate nucleus in IE patients, a significant decrease in SC-FC coupling scores for short links was discovered, but no brain regions had improved coupling metrics for global connections or long connections, which could be attributed to individual brain locations. In IE patients, the age-related regulatory effect on coupling-degree association was distinguishing between brain regions involved in visual processing and cognition-related brain regions.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.1098735
In a fast environment, an organism must continually modify existing behavior to adapt to a specific situation. During categorization behavior that shifted rapidly in contexts, We discovered neuronal activity in monkeys' caudate nucleus. We found that neuronal involvement preserved evidence of the identity and context of a recently defined stimulus as well as the identification and context of a long trace's behavioral significance. The accuracy of this cognitive monitoring system was the highest for behavior in subjects where errors were likely to occur.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03727
The two conditions are similar, and it is common to misdiagnose these two diseases. We screened human caudate nucleus tissue samples for the presence of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V1 member 4 and amyloid precursor protein, which is a human caudate nucleus precursor protein. With two factors associated with high mutation rate, we investigated the mutability of TRPV4 and other genes in mice, rats, and humans by using a similar nucleotide of six genes of concern and one house keeping gene with two factors associated with high mutation rate, such as proximity to telomeres or 2 high adenine and thymine A + T genes in mice, rats, and humans using the genome data viewer. TRPV4 gene size and mutability are conserved across three species of human tissue, indicating that TRPV4 gene structure and mutability are conserved across three species, suggesting that TRPV4 may be a potential contributor to chronic hydrocephalus in elderly humans > 65 years and laboratory rodents of similar age.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.936151
Here, we show that a central input station of the basal ganglia, the caudate nucleus, plays a causal role in providing dynamic scientific evidence and reward context to guide adaptive decision-making. Single caudate neurons encoded both sources of information in monkeys making saccadic decisions based on motion cues and asymmetric reward-choice relationships. Coordinated updates in several quantitative aspects of the decision process that mimicked the monkeys' u2019 common voluntary policies for balancing visual and reward data were among the microstimulation results.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.56694
However, there are no studies relating to CN's role in CM patients. We also compared the subgroups of CM and Pearson's correlation tests between FC values and the clinical characteristics of CM patients. Results FC values between the right CN and five clusters were higher in CM patients than in HCs, according to the results. In the CM patients, increased FC values between the bilateral precuneus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right middle cingulate cortex, right lingual gyrus, right middle cingulate cortex, right linguistic gyrus, and right CN were seen. There were no significant differences between CM patients with and without MOH, males and females, and females. The bilateral calcarine cortex, linguistic gyrus, and right CN's values were positively related to body mass index, according to the body mass index. Similarly, right CN-related FC values in the left calcarine cortex and right linguistic gyrus were linearly correlated with headache severity scales.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-022-01506-9
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of visual stimulation on the CN by using a behaving, head-restrained, eye movement-controlled feline model that was recently created specifically for this purpose. Two cats' CNs were captured in a video fixation technique using static and dynamic stimuli. The PAN and TAN neurons were particularly sensitive to static stimuli, while the HFN neurons responded more to changes in the physical environment, i. e. In the CN, both the static and dynamic components of the visual information are represented. These findings, in more general terms, reveal the first piece of evidence on optic flow processing in the CN, which, in turn, shows the potential role of this system in dynamic visual information processing.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142526
During valuation evaluations of likes and dislikes, arousal reactions emerge simultaneously, influencing reaction times and the frequency of behavioral mistakes. In affective decision, the primate nucleus has been implicated, but it is also unknown how neural responses in the CN reflect decision-related variables underlying choice. We investigated arousal representation by focusing on beta responses and unit activities that encoded the frequency of omission errors, which were directly related to arousal. The beta-band responses appeared to develop in a time continuum throughout conditions: first, the negative-value, then low-arousal, and, finally, high-value environments. We find that the beta responses predominantly demonstrated selective activation for the high-valence and low-arousal conditions, despite unit experiments concurrently recording in the same experiments under approach-avoidance conflict.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00089
Magnetic Resonance Imaging provides a non-invasive way to investigate Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder's neural correlates - the most common form of preventable mental retardation worldwide. Our approach uses the Active Shape Model, which is used to determine shape variation from manually segmented training data. Experiments were carried out on ASM segmentation's image search phase in order to find the method most appropriate to segmenting the hippocampus and caudate nucleus. This heuristic technique improves image segmentation by exploiting features specific to the target environment, such as a relatively uniform tissue colour in target structures. ASMs that use the heuristic image search algorithm obtain the most accurate segmentations, according to the results. The FASD research will use an ASM made using this technology will help researchers to quickly, accurately, and consistently segment test results for use in the FASD study.
Previous studies in PD animal models showed that lesion of dopaminergic neurons is strongly associated with significant decline in AADC activity in the striatum, as well as ineffective conversion of L-DOPA to DA. Interestingly, an analysis of putaminal AADC involvement revealed that control human striatum contained less AADC activity than rat and NHP striata. The L-DOPA conversion to DA was very poor after the L-DOPA administration in MPTP-treated NHP, indicating that AADC in NHP nigrostriatal fibers is principally responsible for L-DOPA conversions, not DA. These results support the rationale behind viral gene therapy in AAV2-hAADC's ability to recover AADC levels in putamen and ARCADC's coverage of anterior putamen and the caudate nucleus, which suggest further that expanded vector delivery includes coverage of anterior putamen and the caudate nucleus.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169965
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