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Object Tuberous sclerosis complex consists of three major intracranial pathological entities: cortical tubers, subependymal nodules, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. In a large cohort of patients with TSC, the authors investigated the origins and development of intraventricular lesions. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed brain MRI scans of TSC patients for whom at least one electronically stored cranial MRI study was available, after institutional review board protocol approval. The CTG had 34 lesions along the CTG, of which 23 were stable in size and 11 increased, with 23 of which were lesionious along the CTG. All other intraventricular lesions were stable. In 1 patient, the earliest relationship between SENs and the caudate nucleus was shown by a 7-Tesla MRI. TSC patients with gastrointestinal lesions are present throughout the lateral ventricular wall. Knowing why these lesions arise in relation to the caudate nucleus may provide insight into therapy.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2011.12.peds11418
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this research was to identify caudate nucleus locations sensitive to intraoperative direct electrical stimulation for tinnitus noise modulation and connect those locations to functional connectivity maps between caudate nucleus subdivisions and auditory cortex. METHODS Six awake study participants who underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation electrode placement in the caudate nucleus as part of a phase I clinical trial were evaluated for tinnitus modulation in reaction to acute stimulation at 20 locations. In the 6 DBS phase I trial participants and 14 other neuroimaging participants with a Tinnitus Functional Index > 50, a Tinnitus FR function index was used to measure connectivity strength between centroids of tinnitus soundness-reducing or loudness-non reducing caudate locations and the auditory cortex. The caudate body has greater functional connectivity to the auditory cortex in comparison to the caudate head.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/2018.10.jns181659
Preoperatively determined in five patients using a radioenzymatic assay device, Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine concentrations were preoperatively determined in five patients. Twenty days after electrode installation, no significant changes in prestimulation lumbar CSF NE levels were detected. Lumbar CSF NE concentrations were dramatically reduced twelve hours after intermittent electrical stimulation of the caudate nucleus.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3171/jns.1977.46.3.0361
The present review found that the three-dimensional spatial association of 14,000 cholinergic neurons that demonstrated choline acetyltransferase in these subcortical nuclei of the mouse forebrain was determined by the present study. Three key organizational principles of organization were found through point process theory and graph signal processing techniques. The cholinergic interneuronal distance is not consistent across brain regions. In contrast, the cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis had a spatial distribution of greater frequency than those with a uniform random distribution. Though axonal bundles were identified in a quarter of the caudate-putamen, the spatial distribution of cholinergic neurons remained dense when axonal bundles were counted. The number of cholinergic neurons per sequent brain region varies as a function of the volume of a specific brain region, but cell body volume remains constant across regions. This information is particularly relevant for future digital cellular atlases and computational simulations of the forebrain cholinergic system's computational models based on real spatial geometry.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12021-022-09588-1
However, bilingual experiences are complicated, and the connection of brain structural changes to key aspects of bilingual language use is still unclear. To investigate the effects of habitual code-switching habits on brain function, we used structural MRI and non-linear correlational analysis in Czech-English bilinguals. We investigated the effects of various code-switching styles on the volume of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus, two common subserving code-switching devices.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/2zebp
Background: Chronic cognitive decline is correlated with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson disease. Methods: The behavioral, imaging, and surgical records of 30 PD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS were examined. Only the Trail-Making Test Part B demonstrated an interactivity in the groups over time, although not the results at 3 months postoperatively. Both groups' postoperatively, and verbal fluency showed a dramatic decline over time for both groups at 3 and 12 months. Conclusion: The penetration of Caudate nucleus affects cognitive flexibility only in the short term after surgery.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1159/000453278
Patients with schizophrenia were significantly smaller in absolute and relative amounts of white matter in the caudate nucleus than those in healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed significant correlations between neuroleptic dosages during the previous year and absolute gray matter volumes of the caudate nucleus as well as relative white matter volumes in patients with schizophrenia. These results show that reduced white matter volume of the caudate nucleus may play a role in the abnormal connectivity of the corticostriatal loop, and that neuroleptic drugs may be correlated to white matter change in patients with schizophrenia.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1159/000080956
According to the present study, no findings regarding changes in the number or affinity of dopamine D2 receptors in depressed suicide victims appear in previous studies on changes in dopamine metabolism in depression and antidepressant effects of dopamine agonists.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1159/000054918
To determine which antipsychotic drug reduces the number of the caudate nucleus in patients with schizophrenia, we analyzed the amounts of grey and white matter in the caudate nucleus of schizophrenic patients's caudate nucleus. The grey and white matter volumes in the caudate nucleus were measured twice by magnetic resonance imaging to determine the grey and white matter volumes in the caudate nucleus. Compared to the healthy control group subjects, the schizophrenic patients had reduced amounts of grey and white matter in the caudate nucleus. These results show that treatment with olanzapine may raise the volume of grey and white matter in the caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1159/000103575
Before and after the introduction of PD, we investigated delayed discounting of reward and caudate quantities in SNCA gene duplication carriers. Participants were 7 presymptomatic SNCA duplication carriers who later developed PD and ten identical non-carrier controls. With the Kirby discounting questionnaire, delay discounting of compensation was determined. Using structural MRI and FreeSurfer hardware, we measured the volume of the caudate nucleus and cerebral cortex. Conclusion: Impaired reward-related decision making and caudate volume loss are not evident in the presymptomatic phase of SNCA duplication carriers.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1159/000341997
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