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Individuals affected by incomplete closure of the vertebrae around the spinal cord, a fluid-filled sac on the back of the body that may or not include part of the spinal cord, or tufts of hair along the spine's base may have incomplete closure. The spine's abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine can also be seen in people with caudal regression syndrome. In some people, breathing difficulties may arise as a result of the chest's size and shape, resulting in respiratory difficulties. Individuals with caudal regression disorder may have small hip bones with limited range of motion. The bones of the legs are generally underdeveloped, with the upper leg bones the most commonly underdeveloped. In their lower limbs, some people report a duller sensation. Normalities in the genitourinary tract of caudal regression syndrome are extremely variable. These kidney abnormalities can cause frequent urinary tract infections and progressive kidney disease. Symptoms of impaired bladder control, which is a condition called neurogenic bladder, can cause affected people to have increasingly difficult to control urine flow. The urethra opening on the underside of the penis or undescended testes may be one of male genital abnormalities. Females may have unusual association between the rectum and vagina. People with caudal regression syndrome may have abnormal twisting of the large intestine, an obstruction of the anal opening, soft out-pouchings in the lower abdomen, or other gastrointestinal tract abnormalities.
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