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Purpose Phytostabilization is considered to be a promising method to prevent cadmium from spreading off-site in highly contaminated arable soils. Methods Twelve plant-amendment schemes were installed on the farmland that was heavily affected by Cd in the South China karst zone, including cash crops kenaf, ramie, and sorghum, together with the application of lime, coconut shell biochar, and rice straw biochar at different rates. A comprehensive report was used to assess the effectiveness of the tested plant-amendment schemes, considering not only the results relating to soil Cd mobility but also the costs. Conclusions Following a one-crop cycle, a 40% median rate of decline was achieved in soil supply Cd. The highest success in the study site, which effectively sequestrated Cd in the roots and reduced soil available Cd at a very low price, was shown by 0. 5% rice straw biochar.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-022-03371-0
In face-to-face interviews, the 300 rice and 300 cotton farmers' primary results were collected using a multistage random sampling procedure based on a well-structured pretested questionnaire. Rice production, chemical fertilizers, diesel fuel, and water for irrigation were among the key energy inputs reported to be 15,721. 55, 10,788. 50, and 4456. 35 MJ hau22121, respectively, according to the study, while irrigation water was estimated to be 14,721. 51, 6,691. 10, 12,691. 10, and water for irrigation are the primary energy inputs. In the rice and cotton crop, respectively, efficiency is linked to specific energy, fuel efficiency, and savings as a result. In addition, the results obtained by the second-stage regression analysis indicated that excessive fertilizer applied to the yield of rice and cotton had a negative effect on rice and cotton's yield, while farm machinery, diesel fuel, and biocides had a positive effect.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21560-9
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