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The chondrocranium is the cartilage component of the vertebrate braincase, and it is the vertebrate braincase's cartilage component. The majority of the chondrocranium is replaced by bone in mammals, birds, and some bony fish, though in lizards, amphibians, and chondrichthyan fish, it could remain a significant piece of the braincase complex in adulthood. Following partial removal of the chondrocranium, the chondrocranium histology has been investigated in vivo model, as well as its effect on rostrum formation. However, representing the physical characteristics of cartilage is also difficult, because these properties are specific to the speed and direction of loading. Stress and strain are also non-linear in terms of a stress-to-worker. However, results to date suggest that the chondrocranium does not provide a vertical support in lizards, but it may have enough to take up some loads in humans. Future models will feature ever more detailed representations of the loading, anatomy, and material properties of the clay, bone, and material properties, as well as rigorous methods of model validation.
Source link: https://zenodo.org/record/7024316
What is the gene regulatory network that underlies the vertebrate head skeleton's morphogenesis? In Xenopus laevis, a delay in cranial cartilage and muscle growth, to reduced size, and muscle malformations led to a deterioration of both cartilage and muscle formation. N-CAM and N-Cad expression is reduced during growth, while the expression of genes essential for cartilage formation is postponed. Both joint markers and genes that are important for regional differentiation are also down-regulated, and bagpipe genes show reduced expression at two separate stages. Expression levels of key myogenic genes are at 30 % or 40% of control expression at 30 u2013 40% of control expression.
Source link: https://zenodo.org/record/7024278
Remaining challenges in auricular cartilage tissue engineering include: obtaining sufficient quantities of regeneration-competent cells and subsequent manufacturing of high quality neocartilage. Human auricular cartilage progenitor cells were recently found in healthy cartilage and, more importantly, in microtia-impaired chondral remains in this research. Prosecutive cartilage progenitor cells have shown a robust ability to proliferate without losing their multipotent differentiation ability and creating cartilage-like matrix in 3D culture.
Source link: https://zenodo.org/record/7012055
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