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Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of Carotid artery stenosis. A woman with untreated hyperlipidemia appeared in our emergency room with left hemiparesis. According to severe stenosis of the right internal carotid artery territory, which was confirmed by MR angiography and carotid duplex ultrasonography, acute infarction was found in the right middle cerebral artery territory. This rapid decline may also be caused by decreased foam cell production by statin and aspirin, which has in turn raised endogenous thrombolysis. Untreated hyperlipidemia, a patient demonstrated the effectiveness of short-term intensive statin and aspirin therapy on atherosclerosis with untreated hyperlipidemia.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8010044
Stroke is one of the world's most common causes of death, and carotid artery stenosis is a common cause of ischaemic strokes. Symptomatic patients are often treated with either carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. Patients who are symptomatic can be treated with the highest medical care, CEA, or CAS.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.15420/ver.2018.14.2
paraphrasedoutput:Materials and methodsWe wanted to distinguish the contributions of leukoaraiosis, infarcts, and CAS to various academic domains, including 601 individuals with unilateral CAS on either left or right, as well as 65 volunteers without significant CAS. Right CAS only had negative direct effects on visual memory, psychomotor, design fluency, and color processing speed, and it had no direct effect on visual perception, word, and color processing speed by ipsilateral infarcts. ConclusionLeft and right CAS will both contribute to verbal and non-verbal cognitive impairment, respectively, and such effects could be mediated by CAS-related leukoaraiosis and infarct. Given that cognition is subject to a variety of pathologies, the exact relationships between markers of major and small vessel diseases, as well as their composite prognostic effects on cognition are subject to further investigation.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.972480
Atherosclerotic lesions and plaques also contribute to arterial stenosis in Carotid artery stenosis. The carotid artery can be occlusion by a crack or stenosis of Plaque. NOX4 mRNA expression in CAS patients with advanced atherosclerotic lesions, as well as diabetes, is thought to protective mechanisms. In fact, NOX4 mRNA expression is lower in patients with symptomatic CAS. A low NOX4 mRNA expression has been attributed to an elevated risk of clinical symptoms. NOX4 appears to be linked to plaque longevity, apoptosis, and plaque hemorrhage, in fact. Even repairing a ruptured plaque with NOX4 appears to be connected to NOX4, as NOX4 mRNA expression corresponds to fibrous cap collagen and is mutually linked to MMP9 activity. Low intra-plaque NOX4 mRNA expression is linked to an elevated risk of symptomatic development, and reduced plaque stabilization systems supporting NOX4's anti-inflammatory effects in human advanced atherosclerosis.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2022.102473
The aim of this research was to determine CBF in patients with 70 percent internal carotid artery stenosis, focusing on the circulation pathways and flow rate in extracranial arteries. A Doppler ultrasound examination was performed on all patients, determining blood flow volume in the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, and vertebral artery. Patients with elevated CBF, patients with CBF close to, and patients with lower CBF were among the healthy, equally aged population. The percentage of patients with significant volumetric flow compensation among age groups 65 years old and > 80 years old was the highest in age groups 65–69 years old and > 80 years old. There were no patients without flow compensation in the oldest age group. In patients with significant volumetric flow compensation, the compensatory increased flow was observed in 3. 31 arteries, on average, in the mild compensation group u2014in 2. 18 arteries, and in the no compensation group only in 1 artery. The increase in the flow volume, in comparison to the reference values, was between 116. 7 mL/min and 251. 9 mL/min. In patients with unilateral ICA stenosis, the volumetric flow increase was more apparent in the ipsilateral ECAs than in the contralateral ones. Conclusions: Understanding the mechanisms of collateral circulation and their analysis in Doppler ultrasonography may be a novel and inexpensive way of identifying and monitoring patients with cerebrovascular disease.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12092216
An arterial stenosis may have complicated effects on the blood flow's velocity from a distance, according to clinical reports. Therefore, we quantitatively investigated the effects of IICAS on extracranial internal carotid artery flow velocity waveforms in order to identify appropriate hemodynamic indices for IICAS diagnoses, based on a patient-specific one-dimensional hemodynamic model. In addition, flow waveform patterns were evaluated using the first harmonic amplitude and the sum of the first harmonic amplitudes of the 1st u201320th order harmonics' amplitudes. In the same patient, simulation results revealed that IICAS significantly raised the FHR and decreased the PSV and EDV. According to statistical reports, the average PSV, EDV, and RI were lower in the stenosis group than in the control group; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups, except for the right ICA's PSV.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering9090422
Background Carotid artery stenosis is a common cause of ischemic stroke, and early detection of CAS may improve patient outcomes. This paper describes a new noninvasive and noncontact detection technique that uses video-u2010 motion analysis to extract useful data from subtle pulses on the skin surface to screen for CAS. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 202 patients with prior carotid Doppler ultrasound results. A short 30 seconds video clip of the neck was shot on a commercial smartphone and analyzed by VMA with numerical quantification of skin motion changes in a blinded manner. The area under the curve of VMA-derived discrepancy values to distinguish patients with and without CAS was excellent, based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The best cutoff value for CAS was 5. 1, with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 87%.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.122.025702
Given the ramifications and sequelae of an acute ischemic stroke, a therapeutic intervention while patients are still symptomatic is a vital step toward stroke prevention. Although carotid endarterectomy has been the gold standard of care for carotid stenosis for many years, recent advancements in carotid stenting techniques, practitioner expertise, and dual antiplatelet therapy have increased the use for treatments other than endarterectomy. Endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting yield overall similar results for the treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis, according to a review of the current literature, but certain factors may influence physicians and patients in choosing one treatment over the other.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12060882
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