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We reviewed CA's radioprotective capacity on cells directly exposed to X-rays and non-irradiated cells that received signals from X-ray treated cells. After exposure to 20 Gy of X-rays, killing 67% of radiation-induced cell death, reducing apoptosis, and raising the GSH/GSSH ratio in our analysis, CA cells, which were considered normal cells in our study. However, the administration of CA to B16F10 cells reduced cell growth by 32%, increased cell death by 200% compared to irradiated cells, and increased cell death by 100% in RIBE bystander cells by 100%. Knowing the potential mechanisms of action of drugs such as CA can help to develop new applications that would shield healthy cells and specifically damage neoplastic cells, as well as providing a new promising treatment for cancer patients in need of radiotherapy.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11112166
According to many sources, unregulated NLRP3 inflammasome creationation may possibly contribute to the severity of COVID-19 and its aftermath. It is therefore likely that blocking NLRP3 inflammasome activity may be useful against both acute lung disease and chronic neurological after-effects. CA or rosemary extracts containing CA can be a safe countermeasure against acute and chronic pathological disorders such as AD and PD, as well as other chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as AD and PD. Since CA has been shown not only to act systemically but also to crack the blood-u2013brain barrier and reach the brain parenchyma to produce neuroprotective effects, we explore the fact that CA can provide an effective countermeasure against both acute and chronic pathological disorders such as Alzheimer's.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11010124
Accumulating evidence shows that the gut microbiota plays a key role in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of diet dietary CA on a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis mouse model, focusing on the deposition and metabolic function of gut microbiota. In addition, CA restored microbial diversity and improved the composition of gut microbiota in DSS-treated mice. In addition, Spearman's correlation coefficient revealed a strong relationship between the fecal metabolites and the gut microbiota species. CAu2019s anti-inflammatory effects against colitis may be partially explained by changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding metabolites.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2022.10.003
Salvia officinalis L. is a good source of antioxidants, such as phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol. The effect of H2O, extraction time, and temperature were investigated. For UAE, it was from 1. 72 u00b1 0. 42 to 14. 37 g mg u22121 00b1 0. 04 to 14. 53 %, with mechanochemical extraction from 0. 55 u00b1 0. 02 to 8. 42 u00b1 0. 05 to 14. 43 u00b1 0. 04 to 8. 56 u00b1 0. 02 u00b1 0. 12 to 14. 46 g mg u22121 u00b1 0. 01 u00b1 0. 40b1 0. 07 u00b1 0. 01 u00b1 0. 33121 u00b1 0. 08 u00b1 0. 42121 u00b1 0. 02 u00b1 0. 01 b1 0. 52121 u00b1 0. 01 u00b1 0. 48 u00b1 0. 1160b1 0. 43 u00b1 0. 351 0. 33121 tu00b1 0. 471.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010080
An HPLC-PDA method was developed for the determination of the primary antioxidant in the fresh leaves in the framework of a research aimed at determining genotypes of Greek rosemary and sage that produce high amounts of carnosic acid. The tested assay was quick and simple and enabled for the fast and accurate determination of carnosic acid and carnosol in the fresh herbs. Several cultivated samples of S. rosmarinus and S. officinalis were found to be promising starting materials for the production of Greek genotypes high in carnosic acid, according to some of them.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11223106
Starting with the abietane diterpene diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, twenty four new triazole derivatives were synthesized using click chemistry, starting with the abietane diterpene diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol. According to MRC-5 and AGS cells, respectively, the most active antiproliferative chemicals of the series were the b3-lactone derivatives 1u20133 and 39. 2 u201348. 9 u03bcM. The best performance at 250 mL'u2219 metersLu22121. In turn, six compounds, including a p-Br-benzyl substitute on the triazole ring, halted 50% C. albicans growth at concentrations lower than 250 mL u22121, was low at 250 ppmG. u22121. u00b5g 21121 The lowest growth of C. albicans increased at concentrations below 250 u22121 u22211921122119192121212121212121121 u22121 u221919212119212121212121212121212121212112 u2219212121121 u222121121 u22212121121 u22121, u222121121, u22121 u2221212112121.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20058666
BACKGROUND: The most common therapeutic strategy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis is to combine therapy with methotrexate. MTX was administered twice a week at a dose of 0. 3 mg/kg b. w. , while CA was administered daily at a dose of 100 mg/kg monotherapy and in combination with MTX. Once a week, body weight and hind paw volume were measured. The CA + MTX combination significantly reduced hind paw swelling, MMP-9, and MCP-1 in plasma, as well as GGT activity in joint homogenates, according to the authors. Our findings indicate that adding CA to MTX therapy may be a safe therapeutic option for patients suffering from RA. Conclusions: The addition of CA to methotrexate treatment greatly improved the outcome in reducing AA formation by reducing the risk of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27207115
In several chronic disorders, including neurodegeneration, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, inflammation and oxidative stress are interlinked and interdependent processes. Emerging evidence has shown that many phytochemicals extracted from edible plants have the ability to modify disease phenotypes. BCP and CA can quickly cross the BBB and accumulate in brain regions, contributing to neuroprotective roles by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting activated microglia, particularly through the development of pro-survival signaling pathways, including monitoring apoptosis and autophagy, as well as mitochondrial quality control. The beneficial effects of both drugs from various in vitro/in vivo experimental models of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease were demonstrated by researchers, who showed that use in therapy may be a promising strategy in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases aimed at preserving mitochondrial homeostasis and reducing glia-mediated neuroinflammation.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061199
Animal diet supplementation has resulted in a small amount of selenium in the earth's crust in some regions, as well as the danger of organism deficiency has resulted in increased animal dietary supplementation, which has been implemented via, e. g. , inorganic selenium compounds. And although selenium is present in selenoproteins in the form of selenocysteine, the dietary effect of selenium may lead to the expression of other proteins or genes. Protein expression in lamb tissues obtained after dietary supplementation with selenium and two other feed additives, fish oil, and carnosic acid was determined by the present study.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111428
The CA precursor miltiradiene was synthesized, and a CA precursor miltiradiene was created, after which the CA production strain was constructed by incorporating the genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes and cytochrome P450 reductase SmCPR was established. In 5 L fed-batch fermentation, the CA titer increased to 24. 65 mg/L in shake flasks and 75. 18 mg/L. This research reveals that engineered yeast cell culture's ability to synthesize CA can be enhanced by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques, providing a theoretical basis for the microbial synthesis of other diterpenoids.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.916605
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