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Decentralized approaches to conservation and the resulting multi-u2010tenure conservation landscapes in South Africa have dramatically changed the environmental stage that influences the development of local carnivore assemblages. In the private reserve, spatial co-u2010occurrence patterns were more diverse, but not necessarily followed a dominance hierarchy associated with higher apex predator densities. Subordinate carnivores may switch between pre-u2010emptive behavior plans and fine-u2010scale cou2010occurrence with dominant rivals, according to pairu2010's covariance. Temporal overlap patterns in our study areas, rather than the local context, seem to be based on species endogenous clock rather than local context, according to consistency in species diel activity asynchrony. Our study, together, shows the complexities and context of guildu2010dependence on current management and conservation strategies, as well as the potential for interventions to influence the local network of carnivore interactions with unknown populations, which has u2010level and cascading impacts.
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