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According to moltological and morphological evidence, the isopods parasitizing H. flavolineatum and E. guttatus are different species. Anilocra brillae sp. specimens obtained from E. guttatus have been identified as a new species, Anilocra brillae sp. Anilocra brillae sp. n. Differences between Anilocra brillae sp. and Anilocra brillae sp. The n. and A. haemuli are included in the A. brillae sp. 's 1 to the pleonites 1'u20133 of A. brillae sp. b. A. brillae sp. 's seventh perepod of A. brillae sp. A. haemuli from H. flavolineatum, A. brillae sp. is based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit gene for A. haemuli from the Caribbean and is based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit gene for A. haemuli from H. flavolineatum, A. brillae sp.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.663.11415
Coral reef communities in the Caribbean are suffering adverse effects from hard coral cover to fleshy macroalgae shifts in dominance on coral reefs. Decision support for coral reef biodiversity conservation is vital for finding out how spatiotemporal shifts in ecosystems during these transitions. In two GUs over six years, data on coral reef fish and benthic communities was obtained from 12 transects per geomorphological unit in two GUs over six years. The shift from the old to new, u03b2 and u03b3-diversity had a negative effect on u03b1, u03b2, and u03b3-diversity, mainly because of rare species, causing a group of small and less vulnerable fish species to become common and an important group of rare species to become locally extinct, leading to the disappearance of a significant population of rare birds. Fish heterogeneity over time may signal the loss of vulnerability in the face of local and global changes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065665
Detailed Review Sponges are vital reef community members, with the ability to flip the entire water column on shallow Caribbean reefs every day. Assimilation and cell removal of cells, sponges take up dissolvable organic carbon and, as a component of particulate organic carbon, according to the sponge-loop hypothesis. Sponges hosts diverse microbial communities within their tissues, which may play a role in carbon and nutrient cycling within the sponge holobiont. We compared microbial community characterization with carbon and nutrient flux data for ten common Caribbean sponge species at two distant locations to see this connection. Conclusions These results combined show that microbiome structure is uncoupled from sponge carbon cycling and does not account for variation in DOC uptake among Caribbean coral reef sponges. Differential DOC assimilation by sponge cells or stable microbiome components can eventually increase carbon flux in the sponge holobiont.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0739-x
Fluorescent pigments are present in a diverse collection of coral reef organisms from several phyla. We investigated the possibility of using these pigments' characteristic fluorescence emission spectra to help unsupervised, optical classification of coral reef habitats. Because fluorescent pigments are not species-specific, the spectral library is arranged in terms of 15 functional groups. Utilizing the similarity tools Spectral Angle Mapper, Spectral Information Divergence, SID-SAM mixed measure, and Mahalanobis distance, we investigated the spectral separability of the functional groups in terms of the number of wavebands required to distinguish between them. Average classification accuracies ranged from 76. 3% for SAM with four evenly distributed wavebands to 93. 8% for Mahalanobis distance with eight equally spaced wavebands to 93. 8% for Mahalanobis distance with eight evenly spaced wavebands. In a second experiment, empirically determined spectra were categorized using the same reference libraries and the Mahalanobis distance for only the 8 evenly spaced waveband case.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084570
Both the habitat and reef-associated fish assemblages within spatially managed coral reefs provide valuable insight into the benefits and disadvantages of Marine Protected Areas. Although MPA's effects on particular target species have been well-documented, we are yet to fully understand the various effects of spatial management on coral reef communities along decadal time scales. Here's a sample of the effects of MPA zoning on fish population, biomass, and species richness over the 21 years since the establishment of the Saba Marine Park. Given the importance of live coral for reef fishes' care and replenishment, as well as the likely role of chronic storm in contributing to coral decline around the region, we investigate how local spatial control can help safeguard coral reef ecosystems in the face of large-scale environmental pressures and changes that are not within the purview of local MPA policy.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054069
Abstract Abstract: Diadema antillarum, a long-spined sea urchins found in the Caribbean, are stable at high population densities, and their grazing aids in scleractinian coral dominance. This report provides three lines of evidence to back up the assertion that a lack of habitat diversity on Caribbean coral reefs contributes to their recovery. Firstly, we obtained fractal dimension measurements, which were used as a proxy for habitat complexity, from 3D models to show that urchins preferentially inhabit areas of above average severity at ecologically relevant spatial scales. The adult D. antillarum population around the artificial reefs increased by 33% from 0. 01 to 0. 20 mu22122, from 0. 08 mu22122, and the juvenile D. antillarum population increased by 75% from 0. 01 mb1 0. 02 to 0. 07 million. This report emphasizes the critical role of habitat structure in D. antillarum's ecology and as a barrier to widespread restoration.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87232-9
Although the nascent field of coral restoration has flourished in the last decade, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the main causes of restoration success, which may impede our ability to properly restore coral reef populations. We used nursery-raised colonies of Acropora cervicornis to experimentally establish coral populations of either 3, 6, 12, or 24 corals within 4m2 plots, resulting in a gradient of coral densities ranging from 0. 75 corals m-2 to 12 corals m-2. Coral survivorship increased as colony number decreased, according to our results. Positive density-dependent influences influenced habitat establishment at densities of 3 corals m-2, according to our findings, but densities of 3 corals m-2 have deteriorated, resulting in negative density dependent effects with decreasing growth and coral survivorship. These results emphasize the importance of density dependent restoration planning for coral restoration efforts, as well as the need to investigate the effect of density on other coral species used for restoration.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2016.00261
Coral reefs are dwindling around the world. Coral reefs are depleting coral reefs. Functional groups' increasing presence in tropical water ecosystems alters the biogeochemical balance of tropical water ecosystems, thus influenceing reef function. In situ for five distinct benthic assemblages now dominating shallow degraded Caribbean reef habitats, here we quantify biogeochemical pathways supporting key reef functions. The rates were then determined by a model consisting of differential equations describing the contribution of each process to the measured chemical fluxes, accounting for the simultaneous influence that different biochemical processes have on measured variables. Inferred rates were low compared to those predicted for reef flats around the world. We suspect that the amount and type of organic matter delivered by abundant algal turfs and cyanobacterial mats on this reef likely raises heterotrophic activity and promotes the proliferation of less diverse copiotrophic microbial populations, drawing the studied reef net heterotrophic and drawing the biogeochemical u201d of distinct populations closer to each other.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-6501-2021
To address and recognize coral reefs' risks and shifts, coral reefs must be carried out by precise analysis and monitoring. This paper compares the key ecological indicators for reef condition assessment, obtained from underwater digital photogrammetry system and traditional sampling design simulations in coral reefs of Cozumel Reefs National Park in the Cozumel Reefs National Park. Using a Geographic Information System, three orthomosaics per reef on six fringing reefs were constructed, and the hard coral community was characterized using a Geographic Information System. According to the video transect protocol, point intercept protocol, and the Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment protocol, orthomosaics were also used as a basis to simulate transect lines and gather data on the hard coral population. Our findings will help to comprehend and integrate the findings obtained with UWP's long-term monitoring protocols in the Caribbean area.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.722569
Abstract Herbivory is a vital step in the general structuration of coral reef benthic communities. P. paru and S. iseri's foraging habits were determined by We discovered that benthic cyanobacterial mats made up 36. 7% and 15. 0% u00b1 1. 53% of the total bites taken by P. paru and S. iseri respectively, with benthic cyanobacterial mats accounting for 36. 7% u00b1 15. 0% and 15. 0% respectively, accounting for 36. 7% u00b1 1. 5 percent of P.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49126-9
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