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Cargo routing and empty container repositioning are two key steps in liner shipping, which are both highly relevant. However, the bulk of existing projects, on container routing and empty container repositioning separately, which does not optimize the global shipping cost, cannot be reduced. In addition, effective repackaging procedures for laden containers can reduce the total handling costs, and accurate data for both laden container and empty container requests can be impossible to locate due to insufficient historical data. For repacking operations in which no information about uncertain laden or empty container demands is known, this research investigates an integrated freight routing and empty container repositioning issue.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214773
The estimations must be changed because of the sensitivity of estimations of the number of vessels carrying out loading and discharging in waters covered with ice. This research aims to investigate the effects of sea ice in various thicknesses on cargo estimations, especially the effects on the vessels' tonnage per centage. There are a limited number of studies on ice resistance of zero-speed vessels. On a scale ship model, an experimental research was conducted to determine the effect of ice on vessel draughts. On the scale model ship, two separate loading conditions were applied. The results revealed that an increase in TPC values was in a linear relationship with ice thickness, and that both loading conditions were present.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.4031/mtsj.56.4.1
The fuel conversion can decarbonize shipping and help achieve IMO 2050 targets. HFO with CCS, LNG with CCS, bio-methanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, ammonia, and electricity were investigated in this paper using empirical ship design methods from a fleet-to-Wake perspective and policy makers. All ship types had similar CAR estimates, meaning that considerations regarding fuel transition would apply equally to all ships. The most sensitive factor in making a ship either weight or volume sensitive, is indirectly affecting the CAR of different fuels, as shown by example, a hydrogen ship is weight-critical and has 2. 3% higher CAR than the reference HFO ship at 20,000 nm. Voyage distance and fuel type could result in up to 48 percent and 11. 7 percent of CAR reduction, up to 48. 5 percent and 11. 7 percent. The ES, CS, and CII were all calculated and it was found that HFO and LNG with CCS had 20% higher ES and CS than HFO, and hydrogen had twice the cost, while ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen had 3u20134 times the CS of HFO and electricity about 20 times, indicating that decarbonisation of the world's fleet would come at a steep price. For example, a battery container ship carrying an equal amount of cargo as an HFO-fuelled containership will only complete 13% of the voyage distance or needs refuelling seven times to reach 10,000 n. m.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en15207468
According to the IMDGC or SOLAS, shippers are required to produce a certificate certifying that the shipment has been packed, labeled, and registered. The carriage of dangerous goods raises two main issues: the carrier's liability for the loss of the volatile cargo itself; and the shipper's liability for the ship and the carrier for damage caused by the hazy cargo's. If the carrier knew or should have been aware of the hazardous cargo under common rule, the shipper's guarantee as to the fitability of the containers for carriage is modified. This paper addresses the issue of shipping flammable cargo under common law and civil law. Especially, the paper addresses and addresses several problems related to shipper's obligation to warn dangerous goods in sea transport.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.15798/kaici.2022.24.3.151
The International Maritime Organization in recent years introduced an initial strategy for GHG reduction from ships in recent years. Based on a simulation of fleet transition aiming for zero emissions by a certain date and destination, as well as various scenarios of decarbonization techniques, environmental controls, fuel prices, and infrastructure construction for alternative fuels, along with various scenarios of decarbonization techniques, environmental standards, petroleum prices, and infrastructure deployment for alternative fuels, determined by the method, assesses costs, such as OPEX, CAPEX, and the amount of GHG emissions based on a simulation of fleet transition aiming for fleet conversion based on a simulation of fleet conversion aiming for the zero emissions a aiming for the target time, Sensibility analysis to account future uncertainty can be carried out by altering the inputted parameters, depending on the approach. We introduce various forms of alternative fuelled ships, and alternate fuel-ready ships, as part of a case study, and we analyze the environmental effects and costs of introducing them to iron ore transportation between Australia and Japan. Scenarios of infrastructure development for alternative fuels is assumed as well, as well as a comparison of the cases, and the effectiveness of the fuels and technologies in each situation is discussed.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3940/rina.iccas.2022.44
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