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Carcinoma - U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

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Last Updated: 04 August 2022

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Analysis of actionable genetic alterations in lung carcinoma from the VA National Precision Oncology Program.

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in both men and women. We wanted to quantify the prevalence of highly variable driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and other NSCLC histologies in veterans enrolled in the VA's National Precision Oncology Program to compare these frequencies to other published research from highly specialized academic cancer centers in this research. Compared to other published studies, EGFR mutations, RET rearrangement, MET exon 14 and ERBB2 small variants frequencies were considerably lower in NPOP, relative to other published studies, though MET amplification was more prevalent in NPOP. Despite higher smoking rates in Veterans, 27. 5% of veterans with lung adenocarcinoma have actionable genetic variations that are eligible for FDA approved targeted therapies, which is only marginally smaller than other published research findings, despite higher smoking rates in veterans.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2022.06.014


Senolytic treatment reduces cell senescence and necroptosis in Sod1 knockout mice that is associated with reduced inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma.

When the Sod1KO mice first showed signs of aging, they were given the senolytics, dasatinib, and quercetin at 6 months of age. The expression of p16 in the livers of Sod1KO mice in the livers of Sod1KO mice dropped to WT levels and the expression of several senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors was reduced by seven months of D+Q therapy. Although the Sod1KO mice had no effect on several indicators of liver fibrosis, the Sod1KO mice's liver fibrosis genes were still present, but they did have shortened the expression of genes involved in liver cancer and dramatically reduced the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. D + Q reduced necroptosis markers in the Sod1KO mice to WT values, surprising enough. We also found that necroptosis in the Sod1KO mice with necrostatin-1s reduced the markers of cellular senescence.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13676


Ets1 mediates sorafenib resistance by regulating mitochondrial ROS pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

A rise in E26 transformation-specific-1 transcription factor in all SoraR cells was demonstrated in our experiments with sorafenib-resistant HCC cells using transcription factor RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays. Ets-1 expression in advanced HCC peaks in comparison to the normal livers, according to HCC TMA studies. In addition, the soraR cells showed a significant reduction of mitochondrial damage and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, which had been stymied by knocking down Ets-1 expression. GPX-2 was identified as a downstream mediator of Ets-1-induced sorafenib resistance, which was down-regulated by Ets-1 knockdown, but other antioxidant pathway genes were unaffected, according to More in-depth analysis. Interestingly, knocking down GPX2 expression in the soraR cells raised sorafenib sensitivity. In soraR cells, we demonstrate the initiation of a new Ets-1-GPX2 signaling axis, which may be able to successfully antagonize resistance and improve efficacy.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05022-1


Hepatocellular carcinoma evades RB1-induced senescence by activating the FOXM1-FOXO1 axis.

In vitro and in vivo, the HCC cells' expressions is consistent with that; inhibition of FOXM1 leads to increased expression of FOXO1 and subsequent releasing of RB1. Human HCCs rely on this FOXM1-FOXO1 axis for phosphorylation and inactivation of RB1. We have evidence that human HCCs are dependent on this FOXM1-FOXO1 axis for phosphorylation and activation of RB1. The results point to the existence of a new autoregulatory loop of RB1-inactivation in HCC involving a FOXM1-FOXO1 axis that is essential for phosphorylation of RB1 and rapid progression of HCC.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-022-02394-8


Dysregulation of immune checkpoint proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma: Impact on metabolic reprogramming.

In HCCs, which lead to immune cell dysfunction and HCC progression, abundant expression of immune checkpoint proteins has been shown. One of the ways by which checkpoint proteins promote tumor formation and immune cell dysfunction is by metabolic reprogramming. This paper provides an insight into the role of immune checkpoint proteins in metabolic reprogramming in tumor and immune cells.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2022.102232


Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in precancerous keratinocytes promotes neighboring head and neck cancer squamous cell carcinoma cancer stem cell-like properties and phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor insensitivity.

Since it hosts two common genetic mutations in HNSCC, CDKN2A promoter methylation, and TP53 mutations, it does not produce tumors, we used the NOK keratinocyte cell line as a model of preneoplastic keratinocytes. HNSCC cell coculture, PI3K inhibitor resistance, and CSC phenotypes were all promoted by NOK cell culture or NOK cell-conditioned media. The relative amounts of >1300 analytes in the media treated by NOK cells and HNSCC cells were determined by a U00b1 PI3K inhibitor. NOK cells were found to release substantial amounts of ligands that stimulate epidermal growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor, as well as two receptor kinases with oncogenic function, according to these results. Inhibition of EGFR, but not FGFR, has reduced PI3K inhibitor resistance and CSC phenotypes induced by NOK cells. In addition, combined inhibition of EGFR by a PI3K inhibitor reduced EGFR activation induced by the PI3K inhibitor, which also severely reduced cancer cell proliferation and CSC maintenance.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/mc.23409


Ablation of high-mobility group box-1 in the liver reduces hepatocellular carcinoma but causes hyperbilirubinemia in Hippo signaling-deficient mice.

We hypothesized that HMGB1 is required for hepatocarcinogenesis by inciting YAP in Hippo signaling-deficient mice. Mst1/2u0394Hep mice developed HCC within 3. 5 months of age and had elevated hepatic expression of HMGB1 and elevated YAP activity relative to controls. Mst1/2-Hep mice were smaller, suffered with acute liver disease, intrahepatic biliary defects, and had reduced hemoglobin levels compared to Mst1/2-u0394Hep mice. Conclusion: Hepatic HMGB1 promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by controlling YAP production; yet, it maintains intrahepatic bile duct physiology in the face of Hippo signaling deficiency.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1943


Distinct hepatic immunological patterns are associated with the progression or inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma.

We perform a three-dimensional analysis of the immune cells, determining immune cell types, interactions, and changes over time in an animal model that exhibits gender in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-associated HCC. Our results show that immunological pattern-recognition could explain HCC's immunobiology and guide immune modulatory strategies for the treatment of HCC in a gender-specific way.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110454

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions