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In this review, we describe a flexible pore imaging strategy that uses Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy to obtain high-resolution 3D images of highly heterogeneous carbonates in etched epoxy-pore casts. In addition, high resolution 2D images from scanning electron microscopy have been correlated with the 3D models used by CLSM to create a multi-scale imaging system that covers a variety of scales, from millimeters in 3D to micrometers in 2D.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2118/188786-ms
Abstract: The extra oil recovery that may be obtained by low salinity water injection has been attributed to an interaction between the crude oil and injected brine, according to a study published recently. Previous studies have shown a correlation between micro-dispersion formation and additional oil recovery in sandstone rocks, but no such links for carbonate rocks have been reported before. We've investigated whether a similar oil/brine reaction can take place in carbonate reservoir rocks, and whether this could lead to additional oil recovery by LSWI in carbonates. When in contact with low salinity brine, a number of crude oil samples were first tested and rated based on rock and oil samples from carbonate reservoirs. The micro-dispersions were then removed from the oil sample with a high tendency to form micro-dispersion, producing a third oil sample. In both cases, two secondary high salinity flood and a tertiary low salinity flood were carried out to see if micro-dispersion was associated with improved oil recovery for this carbonate system. In experiments using the three oil samples, all coreflood tests revealed the same ultimate oil recovery in secondary high salinity water injection. However, when the floodwater was reduced to low salinity, the most oil recovery was achieved for the oil that had a tendency to develop micro-dispersion in the fluid/fluid experiments.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2118/188352-ms
Abstract As potential EOR techniques in UAE candidate reservoirs, carbon dioxide flooding is now being investigated. The key reasons for choosing CO2 flooding as an EOR process were poor permeability and heterogeneity of these reservoirs, which resulted in poor response to traditional water injection. Experimentally, an immiscible CO2 displacement rate of low permeability carbonate rocks of a selected UAE field is investigated experimentally. In this research, the effects of pressure, permeability, and initial oil saturation on the residual oil saturation after floods under immiscible conditions were investigated. Experimental results showed that immiscible supercritical CO2 could mobilize oil in a very low permeability environment with good displacement efficiencies. The downstream area's calcite precipitation is the result of the injection of SC CO2 in limestone cores, which is the most noticeable asphaltene precipitation ever recorded.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2118/98911-ms
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