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Eastern Arabian Peninsula stands for the main all-natural groundwater discharge area of the Arabian platform fossil aquifer system. Our outcomes recommend that ENE-WSW oriented fold-related faults function as vertical conduits along which artesian upward leaks from the deep Aruma aquifer happen into the shallower main aquifer unit in southerly Qatar Peninsula. On the other hand, down leak from the freshwater lens in the Dammam aquifer occur in north Qatar Peninsula. Our findings suggest that structure controls can add considerable complexity to reenergize mechanisms and groundwater characteristics in fossil aquifers. Future massive radar subsurface mapping will be vital to solve the irregularity of the water heads in such areas and its connection to structural interruptions.
Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/6334930
The research of the Miocene carbonate platform of the Maldives permits understanding the regulating variables causing the step-by-step drowning of carbonate systems. Two of these steps are contrasted with respect to the carbonate factory type to unwind if fossil assemblage surviving the first drowning step are various from more youthful assemblages. In both instances the superficial water carbonate facies are formed by coral-coralline algal boundstone and foralgal floatstone that transform basinwards into incline facies controlled by large benthic foraminifera grainstone to packstone, locally floatstone and rudstone. The red algae and big benthic foraminifera assemblages are similar prior to and after the first sinking step. The drowning of the Miocene carbonate platform of the Maldives was the result of the consolidated result of the varying sea-level during the Neogene and the surge of nautical currents due to the invigoration of the South Asian Monsoon during the middle Miocene.
Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/6760798
In this research, stable isotope proportions of linked vertebrate and invertebrate material from the Kaiparowits Formation of southerly Utah are made use of to check out the nature of these hydrological systems and actions of dinosaurs over these landscapes. Especially, mixing of water from big rivers and lakes occurred throughout seasonal flooding occasions comparable to processes occurring in contemporary Tonle Sap Lake in central Cambodia. Episodic flooding produced diversification among soils, with those proximal to irreversible lake shores saturated for a longer time period contrasted to more distal localities. Hadrosaurids eating plants closer to lake shores have greater carbon isotope proportions in their tooth enamel than hadrosaurids taking in greenery from more distal locations recommending a distinction in habitat usage. Therefore, variations in the paleohydrology of these fluvial systems show up to have played an essential function in determining the distribution of dinosaurs over the Kaiparowits floodplain.
Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/6250940
Plate tectonics and climate modification have deeply affected the development of coral reef systems of the Mediterranean during the Miocene. Stratigraphic correlations and Sr isotope proportions on a number of oyster shells date the Dağpazarı reef to the early Langhian. This study highlights for the very first time the excellent importance of Halimeda as debris manufacturer in the eastern Mediterranean reef systems. Dağpazarı Langhian Halimeda bioherms additionally represent the oldest of these frameworks thus far recorded in the fossil record. 87Sr/86Sr ages position the Dağpazarı coral reef system exactly within the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum phase, the most current warm stage of the Earth. This recommends that zooxanthellate reefs had the ability to apply their reef-building capacity in shallow-water setups even during durations of international warming, hence being not exclusively an adaptation to cooling down environments as suggested in the recent arguments.
Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5449474
Carbon and oxygen isotope worths of bovid tooth enamel and pedogenic carbonates were utilized to rebuild the paleoenvironments linked with Middle Pleistocene archeological and paleontological sites from the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. Twenty teeth from 6 bovid tribes and twenty 4 pedogenic carbonates were sequentially tested for secure oxygen and carbon analysis. Paleoclimatic problems, based on the reconstructed mean annual water deficit from δ18Oenamel values recommend an active mesic environment, many similar to the modern Ituri rainforest, showing a much wetter climate than the modern Lake Baringo Basin. The Middle Pleistocene Lake Baringo regional environment appears to have been one dominated by forest locations, continually active streams, marsh and sumpland environments, and a surrounding grassland ecological community.
Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/5248409
Using coupled terrestrial and coastal zone versions, we explored the impacts of deglaciation and anthropogenic inputs on the CO2â $ "H2Oâ $ "CaCO3 system in worldwide seaside ocean waters from the Last Glacial Maximum to the year 2100. With rising sea level and climatic CO2, the carbonate system of coastal ocean water altered significantly. It appears that carbonate buildup, generally, but not specifically, in reef from the LGM to late preindustrial time could represent about 24Â ppmv of the 100Â ppmv surge in atmospheric CO2, lending some support to the â $ reef hypothesisâ $. Although that the worldwide shoal water carbonate mass has expanded extensively since the LGM, the pHT of worldwide seaside waters has decreased from ~ 8. 35 to ~ 8. 18 and the carbonate ion focus declined by ~ 19% from the LGM to late preindustrial time. In contrast, the decrease in seaside water pHT from the year 1900 to 2000 was about 8. 18 â $ "8. 08 and is projected to reduce better from about 8. 08 to 7. 85 between 2000 and 2100, according to the IS92a business-as-usual situation of CO2 emissions. When seen against the millennial to several millennial timescale of geologic modification in the coastal ocean marine carbon system, one can quickly value why ocean acidification is the â $ other CO2 problemâ $.
Source link: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/174506
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