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ISO 15156/MRO1751 initiation testing has been conducted in reduced H2S environments, with a higher strength steel known to be partially sensitive to hydrogen sulfide. For manufacturing such high-quality low alloy carbon steel production casings for service in H2Sour, HPHT wells, this paper suggests that three separate, stress-based criteria are preferred instead. If overload propagation of a pre-existing crack that is below inspection equipment detection thresholds, the limitation of pipe results is determined by the second criterion, crack propagation scheme. The crack propagation criterion addresses cracks that were initially present in the pipe, which is similar to what is found in the NACE Method D DCB test. In a sour environment, crack initiation design, the third criterion, determines the limit of pipe performance based on the pressure and axial load that is required to cause crack initiation. The failure criteria are outlined in terms of key states of tension and measurable pipe material properties from yield tests and NACE Method-A and Method-D environmental toughness assessments. Overlapping pipe failure envelopes are shown to correspond to the three common pipe failure conditions. A case has been presented that a design factor must be applied to each of the three design formulas due to load uncertainty; scatter in pipe mechanical characteristics; and potential interactions between these different processes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2118/97572-ms
For 3 d and 8 percent rotation tests respectively, a B. cereus inoculum had anti-corrosion efficiencies of 92. 8 percent and 73. 8 percent. The B. cereus cells with high biofilm-forming capability were able to adhere to the Q235 CS surface to produce compact biofilms and cause biomineralization. The presence of B. cereus inoculum reduced the amount of Fe 2 O 3 and simultaneously increased the amount of CaCO 3 in corrosion products, according to a surface characterization report.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1953477/v1
Abstract To obtain a high quality alloying layer, the chromium was depositled on the surface of 0. 45 C medium carbon steel by a high-current pulsed electron beam alloying process. An electrochemical workstation measured the corrosion resistance of samples before and after HCPEB irradiation. The Cr element is dissolved on the surface and alloyed with C element in the substrate to produce Cr 23 C 6 enhanced particles, according to TEM results. The microhardness and corrosion resistance of the medium carbon steel treated to a HCPEB alloying process had been dramatically enhanced compared to the previous one.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1515/htmp-2018-0065
The drawbacks of the existing ND methods for corrosion monitoring have increased the desire for novel frameworks in feature extraction, detection, and characterization of corrosion. This report begins with an explanation of the various types of corrosion in the OG pipelines and its prevention techniques. Following is a review of critical sensors embedded with various current ND corrosion monitoring schemes, it is then presented. The benefits of acoustic emission methods over other ND methods are outlined. Several AE-based corrosion detection, estimation, and reliability assessment tools for online pipeline condition monitoring are also highlighted.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/s22176654
The main precipitates in the HMSS coating, however, are Dendritic and network-connected M 23 C 6 carbides, although the M 23 C 6 carbides are spherical or elongated in form. The underlying cause of the HMSS coating's u201cLOP u201d effect is the Cr-depleted region induced by the Cr-enriched and dendritic M 23 C 6 carbides.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1937863/v1
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