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Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/IND607834649
In this work, the effect of carbon black from Mao bamboo as a reinforcing agent in melamine urea a formaldehyde resin wood adhesive is evaluated. The formaldehyde content of those filled with MBCB increased by 22. 02% compared to MUF resin filled with flour, and the formaldehyde emission was reduced by 21. 2 percent. MBCB is believed to have been involved in the curing reaction of MUF resin, which makes the curing reaction of MUF resin quicker.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/IND607834644
Here and comparatively discussed the use of DAE for the carbon black-filled rubber compounds. The cure time, cure rate index, and cure reaction rate constant of SBO-added rubber compounds with and without coagents were found to be higher than those with DAE-added rubber compounds, although the activation energy of SBO-added rubber compounds was lower than that of DAE-added rubber compounds, according to the university. The mechanical characteristics of rubber compounds with DAE and SBO are similar without coagent. Note: the SBO-added rubber compounds with and without coagents displayed better thermal aging and ozone resistances than the DAE-added rubber compounds. The presence of coagents, especially TMPTMA, gave the SBO-added rubber compound with the superior results to the DAE-added rubber compound and the SBO-added rubber compound without coagent, according to the DAE-added rubber compound and the SBO-added rubber compound without coagent.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/IND607818822
Rubber composites with 5 to 150 parts per hundred rubber are shown by this research, which includes epoxidized natural rubber with 50% of epoxide group and liquid butadiene rubber for carbon black/lignin-filled natural rubber/polybutadiene rubber composites manufactured in two different ways. Compared to composites without ENR, the presence of ENR at concentrations up to 10 phr in carbon black/lignin-filled NR/BR composites reduced cure and scorch time by 33. 7% and 21. 1% respectively, compared to composites without ENR. Better communication was seen between carbon black/lignin-filled NR/BR with ENR, according to Scanning electron microscopy results.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/IND607791543
Increased road air pollution caused by vehicle emissions can be improved by having a better understanding of the sources of black carbon and ultrafine particles in urban roadway regions. BC and UFPs concentration data were analyzed and evaluated in urban road region using the Aethalometer model and UFP source apportion system. The source and similarity of primary and secondary UFPs at the roadside locations were also clarified. The BC source apportionment results revealed on-board fossil fuel combustion at the intersection and near the road of ca. Moreover, the proportion of particles number specific emitted from vehicles and nucleated on emission was lower than that of particles created during vehicle combustion and cooling as well as in-situ new particle generation at the roadside site.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36058280
The present research is recommending an eco-friendly, green tyre tread formulation with superior abrasion resistance, mechanical, rolling resistance, and heat buildup properties. A filler masterbatch of graphite was prepared within the natural rubber matrix as composition and added to the compound master batch to ensure the maximum dispersion. The composite's behavior was also investigated as a result of the effect of thermal exfoliation of graphite on the dispersion, which was also investigated. Temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 degrees u02daC, the graphite was thermally treated for a sudden thermal shock for 15 minutes.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR537365
Air Quality has been steadily improving since the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan was initiated in 2013, which in 2013. The second stage of the air clean plan since 2018 was mainly focusing on O3 filtering, but it didn't decline as much as PM 2. 5. This study used the observational results of other air pollutants, meteorological measurements, and PBL's vertical sounding data in Nanjing to conduct a long-term black carbon study. Due to the increasing heating effect of BC, the surface temperature of the surface BC increased. The PBL's constant rise in the surface temperature made it possible for the PBL height to rise, which resulted in the inversion layer's raising and greater atmospheric environment capacity in the PBL.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36037924
On a global basis, we investigated the reliability of using ambient measurements as proxies of personal exposures at individual levels focusing on fine particles and black carbon /elemental carbon. Correlation coefficients between paired ambient concentration and personal exposure for PM 2. 5 or BC/EC were determined as effect size. This systematic review identified thirty-two observational studies involving 1744 people from ten countries, with 28 studies for PM 2. 5 and 11 studies for BC/EC. Personal PM 2. 5 exposure is more closely linked to ambient temperatures than personal BC/EC exposure, with significant differences in u1e5d. The findings support the growing consensus that proxy measures' validity coefficient should be investigated when interpreting findings from epidemiological studies in order to better understand how good health outcomes are affected by various amounts of PM2. 5 and their components.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36037851
Primary and secondary genotoxicity's contribution to the overall level of DNA damage by carbon black was the subject of this systematic review. Many in vivo studies result from one laboratory that has investigated the genotoxic effects of Printex 90 in mice by intratracheal instillation. The Printex 90 exposure has been shown by both experimental and pooled analysis of these results, resulting in a modestly higher risk of DNA strand breaks in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells. Other forms of genotoxic damage have yet to be investigated as thoroughly as DNA strand breaks have, although there are evidence to support that carbon black exposure may raise the mutation frequency and cytogenetic endpoints. Even substantial pulmonary inflammation is best described as a weak genotoxic response in lung tissue.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36007825
Following intratracheal instillation, three doses of FL101 and XE2B were tested in vitro in the lung epithelial and activated THP-1 monocytic cells cultured in submerged conditions for 6 and 24 h, as well as in C57BL/6 mice at day 1, 28 and 90. DNA damage was determined in vitro and in vivo as DNA strand breaks were detected by the alkaline comet assay. In BAL cells, a non-statistically significant rise in DNA damage in vivo was reported. This study, in conclusion, shows that dosed SSA caused inflammation both in vivo and in vitro, as well as in vitro, whereas dosed mass predicted genotoxicity in vitro in THP-1a cells. In vivo and in vitro, the observed lack of correlation between CBNP surface area and genotoxicity provides no evidence of inflammation-driven genotoxicity.
Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35993455
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