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Carbohydrate - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 10 November 2022

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Carbohydrates: Binding Sites and Potential Drug Targets for Neural-Affecting Pathogens

When more is known about the pathogens that enter human cells, it has become abundantly apparent that carbohydrates on the surface of either target cells or the pathogens themselves are vital. A slew of potential binding events by which cell infection can occur can be caused by variations in carbohydrate structures as well as the presence of carbohydrate binding receptors.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12390-0_15


The Impact of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 on Survival in Patients with Clinical Stage I and II Pancreatic Cancer

The National Cancer Database analyzed the effects of CA19-9 on overall survival in patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer patients using the National Cancer Database. Methods The NCDB was scanned from 2010 to 2014 to identify patients with a clinical stage Iu2013II PC. The majority of stage I and II patients received CA19-9 u2265 98 U/mL. Stage I and II patients with CA19-9 improved OS rates by 98 percent, 98 U/mL. 98 U/mL was associated with improved OS in stage I patients, CA19-9 98 U/mL, and a similar pattern was observed in resected stage II patients. Patients with lower CA19-9 had improved OS, with similar findings in unresected stage II patients. Conclusions Our research found that CA19-9 in patients with clinical stage Iu2013II PC – the equivalent to 98 U/mL, demonstrating increased survival.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-022-12497-x


Exercise training attenuates pulmonary inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model of high-fat high-carbohydrate-induced NAFLD

Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease can cause respiratory difficulties related to lung dysfunction related to pulmonary inflammation. In addition, no information is known about the therapeutic use of exercise training in NAFLD in terms of respiratory pathophysiology. In C57BL/6 mice, the present research sought to investigate the effect of exercise training on high-fat high-carbohydrate-induced pulmonary dysfunction. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a conventional Chow or an HFHC diet for 15 weeks. Both Chow+EX and HFHC+EX mice were exposed to treadmill running. In addition, the HFHC significantly reduced mitochondrial function, as well as decreased Mfn1 protein levels and elevated Fis1 protein levels. However, aerobic exercise training in lung tissues has significantly reduced these pathophysiologies in the lungs in terms of ameliorating inflammatory and fibrogenic functions, as well as increasing mitochondrial function in lung tissue. Conclusions The current results show that exercise training has a positive effect on pulmonary abnormalities in HFHC-induced NAFLD through improved mitochondrial function.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-022-02629-1


Carbohydrate-based biorefineries for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and their separation and purification methods

While looking at other related products, the goal of this essay is to introduce the reader to the main catalytic routes for the manufacture of platform molecules of enduring value, such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furfurfurfurfural. This review also provides a new perspective to refocus the attention on the development of separation and purification technologies as part of the integrated process, as this is a critical point in future scalability.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-022-03477-y


Bifidobacterial carbohydrate/nucleoside metabolism enhances oxidative phosphorylation in white adipose tissue to protect against diet-induced obesity

a broader set of environmental factors, including high-fat diets, have revealed that obesity is associated with the gut microbiome plus changes in many environmental factors, including lean and obese humans. Here, we reveal that two species of Bifidobacterium are essential to controlling metabolic parameters in the Korean population. Bifidobacterium longum, body mass index, blood triglyceride, and fatty liver were all found in individuals with elevated visceral adipose tissue, increased visceral adipose tissue, blood triglyceride, and fat liver, according to the results based on gut microbiome analysis from 99 Korean people. To prevent diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice, Bifidobacterium longum or Bifidobacterium bifidum. Conclusions Bifidum and Bifidum's treatment may have been a novel therapeutic approach for reprogramming the host metabolic homeostasis to help avoid metabolic syndromes, including diet-induced obesity.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-022-01374-0


Carbohydrates and ginsenosides in shenmai injection jointly improve hematopoietic function during chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in mice

Carbohydrates can influence Glutathione metabolism and the B cell receptor pathway. Background Shenmai injection, a common Chinese medicine injection made from Red ginseng and Ophiopogon japonicus, is widely used in clinics to treat chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. Purpose We wanted to investigate the hematopoietic effects and potential mechanisms of SMI and its components, primarily the carbohydrates present in SMI. First, we investigated the hematopoietic effects of SMI on 5-fluorouracil-induced myelotoxicity in a tumor-bearing mouse model. Myelosuppression in mice with 5-FU-induced myelosuppression, we gathered ginsenosides and carbohydrates according to their proportions in SMI and tested their hematopoietic function in mice. Both ginsenosides and carbohydrates raised the bone marrow nucleated cell count and improved bone marrow morphology in myelosuppressive mice, and they promoted the proliferation of BMSCs derived from those myelosuppressive mice.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-022-00678-5


Restricting sugar or carbohydrate intake does not impact physical activity level or energy intake over 24 h despite changes in substrate use: a randomised crossover study in healthy men and women

Methods In a controlled, open-label crossover design, twenty-five healthy men and women consumed three diets over a 24-h period, including moderate carbohydrate and sugar reduction, low sugar content, and low carbohydrate content. [690, 991] and energy intake respectively, for both physical fitness and energy intake. MODSUG, LOWSUG, and LOWCHO diets resulted in similar mean [95%CI] rates of both physical activity and food intake [614, 991] vs. 679 [614, 991] and energy intake. Leptin levels dropped nearly 24-hours of taking LOWCHO relative to LOWSUG after a 24-h shift. Despite significant metabolic transitions, when energy density is controlled, limiting either sugar or total dietary carbohydrate does not influence physical fitness level or energy intake over a 24-h period.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-022-03048-x


Design of amino acid- and carbohydrate-based anticancer drugs to inhibit polymerase η

U03b7 is of great importance for the manufacture of new families of anticancer drugs. This protein is involved in several aspects of the cell cycle, including DNA replication, translesion DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. Regardless of the stage of tumor cells, a high degree of COP 03b7 expression in most instances has been correlated with low rates of patients' survival. Hence, the development of new drugs with less side effects in cancerous cells has attracted attention in recent years. These alternative inhibitors are supposed to interfere with the DNA replication process in cancerous cells and prevent tumor cells from mitosis. The inhibitors that contain amino acid and carbohydrate's natural building blocks of amino acid and carbohydrate may be used as alternative drugs for Cytarabine to inhibit polu03b7, according to our findings.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-22810-z


Exploiting photoredox catalysis for carbohydrate modification through C–H and C–C bond activation

This Review examines photoredox-mediated C&U2013H and Cu2013C bond formation of carbohydrates that result in non-conventional C -functionalized sugars and rare sugar isomers, and rare sugar isomers. Photoredox catalysis has recently emerged as a versatile synthetic platform for accessing specialized chemical structures by non-traditional bond disconnection techniques that proceed through free-radical intermediates. Carbohydrate derivatives with such motifs represent a large class of natural products integral to various biochemical processes and may be present in active pharmaceutical substances. Here we show the latest results in Cu2013H and Cu2013C bond initiation of carbohydrates by photoredox catalysis, focusing on the operational aspects and the scope of the proposed methods.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41570-022-00422-5

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions