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Carbohydrate - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 10 January 2023

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Carbohydrate complexity limits microbial growth and reduces the sensitivity of human gut communities to perturbations.

Dietary fibre promotes human gut microbiota's growth dynamics, but no comprehensive or quantitative study of how these nutrients influence microbial interaction networks and responses to perturbations is available. We dissect the effects of fibres that vary in chemical complexity and each of their constituent sugars on community assembly and reaction to disturbances by building human gut communities and modeling computational simulation. In sum, the quantitative effects of carbohydrate chemical complexity on microbial interaction networks could be used to inform dietary and bacterial interventions to modulate community resistance to perturbations.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36604549


Liver Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is Required for the Full Anorectic Effect of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Liraglutide in Male Mice fed High Carbohydrate Diets

We investigated the mechanisms used by the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide to raise FGF21 levels and FGF21's metabolic relevance here in this study. We investigated whether FGF21's contribution to liraglutide-induced weight loss is dependent on dietary carbohydrate content, since FGF21 reduces carbohydrate intake. Only HC-fed Liv Fgf21 -/- mice were resistant to liraglutide-induced weight loss in both control and liver Fgf21 knockout mice fed calorically matched diets with low- or high carbohydrate content, according to our results.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR591213


Simplified Meal Announcement Versus Precise Carbohydrate Counting in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Using the MiniMed 780G Advanced Hybrid Closed Loop System: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Glucose Control.

Objective We aimed to compare glucose control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using the MiniMed 780G system, which simplified meal notification with those that used precise carbohydrate measurements. This randomized controlled trial was set to commence using the MiniMed 780G device at Sidra Medicine in Qatar, and included 34 participants with T1D who were on multiple daily injections or insulin pump. TIR was 73. 4 percent in the fix and 80. 3 % in the flex group, with a difference of 6. 8% in favor of flex during the 12-week research phase, with a difference of 6. 8% in favour of flex indicating a difference of 6. 8%. Time > 250 mg/dL was faster in the flex group, though HbA1c, time below range, was quicker, and the time between 180 and 250 mg/dL did not differ.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36598841


Effect of Exercise Interventions on Irisin and Interleukin-6 Concentrations and Indicators of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Males with Metabolic Syndrome.

Irisin is a biomarker that is connected to metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the current research sought to investigate the effects of exercise intervention on IR and interleukin-6 levels and indicators of carbohydrate metabolism in males with MetS. The study included 62 male MetS randomly selected males, the investigated group 1 with aerobic exercise intervention, investigated group 2 with combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, both for 12 weeks, and the control group without intervention. An increase in IR level was discovered in EG1, as well as decreases in IL-6, BF, and GL levels in relation to the initial measurement. A greater decrease in the amounts of IL-6 and INS as well as more beneficial changes in body composition were observed during aerobic training alone in males with MetS.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36615169


RGS4 impacts carbohydrate and siderophore metabolism in Trichoderma reesei

The G-protein pathway influences physiological characteristics in a light dependent manner, including Trichoderma reesei, enzyme manufacture, expansion, and secondary metabolism. Here, we investigated the function of the RGS4-type regulator of G-protein signaling protein RGS4. Importantly, RGS4 positively controls the siderophore cluster responsible for fusarinine C biosynthesis in light, and the respective deletion mutant shows reduced growth on nutrient sources related to siderophore production. In T. reesei, we find that RGS4 mainly operates in light and targets plant cell wall degradation, siderophore production, and storage compound metabolism.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR591991


Engineering and characterization of carbohydrate-binding modules to enable real-time imaging of cellulose fibrils biosynthesis in plant protoplasts

Summary Carbohydrate binding modules are non-catalytic domains associated with cell wall degrading carbohydrate-active enzymes that are often present in nature but are tetherable to distinct catalytic domains. Likewise, fluorescently labeled CBMs have been used to determine the presence of specific polysaccharides present in plant cell wall and tissue. Previous studies have reported a qualitative review of CBM-polysaccharide interactions, but no study has been done on effective CBM designs for recognizing specific plant cell wall glycans. In addition, CBMs have not been used to investigate cell wall regeneration in plant protoplasts. Our results show that tandem CBM3a produces a five-fold higher adsorption rate to cellulose relative to single CBM3a, making tandem CBM3a suitable for live-cell imaging applications. We then used engineered CBMs to see Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts with regenerated cell walls using wide-field fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR591311


Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) Increases Growth, Protein and Photosynthetic Pigments Production and Alters Carbohydrate Production of Spirulina platensis.

The present research looked at the effects of adding NaHCO 3 to the culture medium's growth rate and biochemical composition, particularly the co-production of proteins, carbohydrates, and photosynthetic pigments of S. platensis. In different NaHCO 3 concentrations, Spirulina platensis was grown. With an increase in the NaHCO 3 concentration, the growth of S. platensis and biochemical compound content increased. With culture age and an increase in the NaHCO 3 concentration, the amount of carbohydrates and antioxidant compounds decreased. These results show that S. platensis uses NaHCO 3 as a carbon source for photosynthesis, biomass production, and acts as a metabolic energy carrier toward the synthesis of proteins and photosynthetic pigments, which are more energy-consuming metabolites than carbohydrates. The addition of NaHCO 3 to the culture media may be a potentially effective way to increase S. platensis's protein and photosynthetic pigment productivity.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36595115


Carbohydrate Sources Influence the Microbiota and Flavour Profile of a Lupine-Based Moromi Fermentation.

Lupine-based seasoning sauce is manufactured in a similar way to soy sauces and therefore has a similar microbiota and aroma profile. Although Aspergillus oryzae dominates the koji state, the microbiome of the moromi differs from soy moromi, particularly in yeast composition, in the absence of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Debaryomyces hansenii as the predominant yeast. Both substrates influence the lupine sauce in a similar manner since there were no significant differences in the taste and odour of wheat-added and buckwheat-added sauce, which was apparent.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36613413


The role of low-carbohydrate diets in the intensive care unit.

Because of the altered metabolism in critically ill patients, LCHF nutrition therapy may be particularly beneficial because it promotes protein storage for metabolic functions beyond energy use. This commentary paper is intended to describe LCHF nutrition therapy, summarize its effects on health, and explore its role in the intensive care unit. Additional study into the effects of LCHF nutrition therapy on critically ill patients is warranted, including a focus on COVID-19.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/36591890

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions