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Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae is present as two circulating pathotypes: classical K. pneumoniae and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae. Classical isolates are considered urgent threats due to their antibiotic resistance profiles, while hv Kp isolates have historically been antibiotic-resistant, although hv Kp isolates have traditionally been antibiotic-resistant. Two distinct surface polysaccharides have gained traction as vaccine candidates against K. pneumoniae: capsular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide, an O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide. Although each vaccine was immunogenic in mice, both c Kp and hv Kp strains had decreased O-antibody binding in the presence of capsule. The presence of K. pneumoniae capsule in serum bactericidal assays with encapsulated strains has reduced killing, according to O1 antibodies, implying that the presence of O1 antibodies reduces O1-antibody binding and function. In two separate murine infection models, the K2 vaccine outperformed the O1 vaccine against both c Kp and hv Kp. These results indicate that capsule-based vaccines may be more effective than O-antigen vaccines for attacking hv Kp and some c Kp strains due to capsule blocking the O-antigen. Significance Statement Currently there are no approved vaccines against K. pneumoniae, but some are in the works. Two common K. pneumoniae surface polysaccharides are appealing vaccine targets; however, the relative effectiveness of these potential vaccines against K. pneumoniae strains has not been evaluated directly. In murine models of pneumonia and bacteremia, a capsule-based vaccine defeats an O-antigen vaccine against both c Kp and hv Kp, indicating that capsule-based vaccines provide superior immunity against many K. pneumoniae infections.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.11.01.514596
We concentrated on CapG, one of the primary enzymes in the synthesis pathway of capsular polysaccharides type 5 from the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus autus. b = 84. 09 bc5, u00c5 = 110. 65, u00b0 u00c5 = 110. 65 b 00b0 004b0 Following extensive attempts, single crystals of Sa CapG were successfully obtained, b = 84. 09, b = 145. 09 – 144. 09 - b = 110. 65 % 00b0 The u03b12 loop and u03b110 as a gate-regulated switch regulating substrate delivery and/or product export from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii identified as a gate-regulated switch regulating substrate entry and/or product release, according to a structural comparison using UDP-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1107/s2053230x22008743
Abstract Group B Streptococcus is a leading cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes due to invasive infection in women. The goal of this research was to examine longitudinal variability in GBS rectovaginal colonization, serum, and vaginal GBS capsular polysaccharide -specific antibody levels. Luminex and total IgG/A by ELISA determined Serum and vaginal immunoglobulin A specific to CPS. Out of the 66 participants who attended at least three visits: 14/47 women who were GBS negative at screening became positive in follow-up visits, and 16/19 women who were GBS positive at screening became negative. The first positive swab showed a 50% chance of being negative 36 days after the first positive swab. In the serum of people colonized with GBS compared to non-colonized, the CPS-specific antibodies were higher than in non-colonized, but not in the vaginal and nasal mucosa. We found associations between antibody levels in serum and the vaginal and nasal mucosa.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1093/cei/uxac066
We update the A. baumannii K locus reference sequence database for CPS typing to include 145 new KLs, totaling 237 KL reference sequences. The database was also updated for compatibility with the latest Kaptive v. 2. 0. 0 code, which makes it possible to predict a u2019K type u2019 from special logic parameters defined by detecting combinations of KL and additional genes outside of the K locus. The specific KL was found in 73. 45 percent of genomes with perfect, very high, or high confidence in 8994 publicly accessible A. baumannii genome assemblies from NCBI databases, according to the database's validation. Substantial variation in gene expression of the central portion of the K locus, which often includes genes that are specific to the CPS type, was found in 34 separate groups of genes for the manufacture of various complex sugars and > 400 genes for creating linkages between sugars and substitutes.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000878
Following the hybridization of B lymphocytes with mouse myeloma cells, mice were immunized with synthetic tetrasaccharide conjugated with bovine serum albumin in order to produce the hybridoma-producing mAb. In ELISA, the IgM titer of anti-tetrasacharide antibodies in supernatants of clones and in mouse's ascitic fluid was higher than those using bacterial tetrasaccharide and synthetic CP adsorbed on the solid phase, according to the use of bacterial tetrasaccharide and synthetic CP adsorbed on the solid phase was higher than that of cellular tetetetetetanadisolation tete tetetetetete and in te and in te and in the as well assay in the as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well as well assay. In the reaction to the inhibition of ELISA, the mAb detected the corresponding carbohydrate epitopes of S. pneumoniae serotype 14's bacterial CP in the liquid phase, which was less active than tetrasaccharide ligand and synthetic CP. The derived mAb to tetrasaccharide epitope of CP can be used to determine the presence of the protective tetrasaccharide epitope of CP in the production of pneumococcal vaccines.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.36233/0372-9311-2018-5-26-31
Aim. The production of a semi-synthetic nutrient medium that contains the most amount of capsular polysaccharide is exhibited by Aim. Serotype 23F, strain 521 of S. pneumoniae serotype 23F, was used in this series. Based on the regression equation's coefficients, the step size u0394Si in the gradient direction was estimated. respectively. The optimal calculated peptone and glucose concentrations, which are ideal for CPS production, are 32. 6 and 12. 1 g/l. S. pneumoniae and its capsular polysaccharide were found in models based on the composition of the nutrient medium by using fractional factorial experimentation. Both the CPS and CPS increased by 1. 5u20142 times by the optimal concentrations of the medium's component. The optimal concentrations of the medium were discovered, making it possible to raise the level of biomass production by 10% compared to the standard formulas.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.36233/0372-9311-2019-4-68-72
The introduction of pneumococcal vaccine serotypes into national immunization schemes around the world has reduced the incidence of pneumococcal vaccine serotypes, but had no effect on the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 in their study. The results of the analysis of epidemiological efficacy and immunogenicity of capsular polysaccharide of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 capsular polysaccharide are contradictory in conjugated and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines are contradictory. According to the literature results, opsonophagocytosis is the most reliable indicator of S. pneumoniae CP in pneumococcal vaccines, including serotype 3. The use of synthetic oligosaccharides of a specifically defined chemical structure linked to serotype 3 CP's protective fragments and conjugated with a carrier protein for T-dependent immune response enhancement and immunological memory is promising. To raise the im muno genicity of S. pneumoniae serotype 3 CP's serotype 3 CP's serotype 3 CP's serotype 3 CP's determinant immunologic response and immunologic response and conjugated with adeno o pyro a determinate of sero peptide cytogene serotype 3 phago cellular fragments of sero a ate cellular cytogeno kineticae geno bacterial geno cytogeno peptidae cytogeno stero phago cellular bactero chyotype 3 geno genosporo geno chyo geno-inoxohexospor.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.36233/0372-9311-2020-97-1-72-82
We searched for novel regulators of secondary metabolites synthesized by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens and discovered mutations in a gene for unidentified UmoB/IgaA family member here called gumB. These findings support the assertion that UmoB/IgaA family proteins are functionally conserved and extend the known regulatory power of UmoB/IgaA family proteins to the control of competition-associated secondary metabolites and biofilm formation. The IgaA/UmoB family proteins are thought to be inner membrane proteins that indicate extracellular stress to intracellular signaling pathways that respond to environmental challenge. This report introduces a new member of the IgaB/UmoB family of the IgaA/UmoB family, and reveals a high degree of functional similarity between the IgaA/UmoB family proteins.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.02575-17
Streptococcus pneumoniae, an encapsulated gram-negative bacterium and a common human pathogen. On the basis of the CPS, S. pneumoniae serogroup 10, there are four key serotypes 10A, 10B, 10C, and 10F, as well as the recently reported 10D. Serotype 10A CPS, the most common serotype 10A CPS, has been included as a vaccination antigen in the next generation PCVs as a vaccine antigen. Human intelectin-1 of the terminal DGal f's exposed exocyclic 1,2-diol of each serotype's u3b2 DGal f's initial immune response and hence serotype disease prevalence may play a role in the emergence of the innate immune response and hence serotype disease prevalence. To be safe against serogroup 10A disease, we recommend including serotype 10A in a vaccine in the final.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.961532
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