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Cancer Immunotherapy - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 10 June 2022

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Synthetic libraries of immune cells displaying a diverse repertoire of chimaeric antigen receptors as a potent cancer immunotherapy

"Cancer immunotherapies are based on one or two specific tumor-associated antigens. " Here we report on the design and application of libraries of immune cells containing various lines of chimaeric antigen receptors and display antigen-dependent clonal expansion in mouse models of epithelial tumor models. "With murine xenografts and patient-derived xenografts, our off-the-shelf book of 106 murine or human CAR clones was remarkably lacking established tumors in mice with murine xenografts and patient-derived xenografts. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41551-022-00895-1


Choice of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay influences clinical eligibility for gastric cancer immunotherapy

"Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors are now standard-of-care therapy for patients with metastatic gastric cancer," said the author. Programd death ligand-1 biomarker expression is usually assessed by immunohistochemistry to aid patient selection for ICI therapy. In GC PD-L1 IHC, We investigated the interchangeability between the Dako 22C3, Dako 28218, and Ventana SP-142 assays. Methods We produced 362 GC samples for PD-L1 combined positiv score, tumor proportion score, and immune cells using a multiplex immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence method in this cross-sectional study. Results The number of PD-positive samples for the 28u20138 assay were approximately two-fold higher than that of the 22C3 compared to the 22C3's. Conclusions The 28-U20138 assay scored PD-L1 CPS with the 28-u20138 assay, which may lead to higher PD-L1 scores and a larger percentage of PD-L1 positivity compared to 22C3 and other assays. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10120-022-01301-0


Metabolic reprograming of MDSCs within tumor microenvironment and targeting for cancer immunotherapy

"A growing body of emerging research in the field of immune metabolism has shown that cellular metabolism reprograming is a major player in preserving both tumor cells and immune cells' viability and functions. " Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in response to the intricate tumor microenvironment's intricate tumor microenvironment, thereby limiting the therapeutic effectiveness of anti-cancer treatment techniques. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00776-4


Cancer immunotherapy based on image-guided STING activation by nucleotide nanocomplex-decorated ultrasound microbubbles

"Activation of the STING pathway in antigen-presenting cells has been suggested as a way to boost tumour immune response in mice," the researcher says, but its clinical application is hampered by the unreality, low specificity, and poor cytosolic entry of natural STING agonists. " Here the authors present a platform for targeted ultrasound-mediated cytosolic delivery of STING agonists that demonstrate sensitivity in various animal tumor models and increases the response to checkpoint blockade therapy. Both localized and metastatic murine cancer models show that the bridging of innate and adaptive immunity reduced tumor formation. Our findings reveal that targeted local activation of STING in APCs under spatiotemporal U. S. stimulation results in systemic antitumour immunity and enhances the therapeutic efficiency of checkpoint blockade, opening the way toward novel image-guided therapies for targeted cancer immunotherapy.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-022-01134-z


Improvement of STING-mediated cancer immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors as a game-changer

"Among cancer immunotherapies, interferon genes stimulated various immune cells and stimulated them to attack cancer cells. " However, type I interferon stimulation as a side effect of a STING agonist stimulates the immune cell, increasing the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, combining therapy can help minimize the side effects of STING agonists and maximize cancer therapy. The number of active immune cells in the spleen and TME was found, and the number of live immune cells increased, while immunosuppressive cells decreased, according to the researchers. Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in the tumor and serum were elevated, while anti-inflammatory cytokines decreased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased. "When multiple cancer therapies are mixed to treat cancer, it can lead to an anticancer immune synergistic response that increases the immune response and lowering side effects," this report found.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-022-03220-6


The future of cancer immunotherapy for brain tumors: a collaborative workshop

"Harnessing the effector mechanisms of the immune system to combat brain tumors with antigen specificity and memory has been in scientific and clinical research for many years. " The National Brain Tumor Society and the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy collaborated with the Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy to host a conference to share latest findings, inspiration, and identify challenges and new opportunities for using immunotherapy against pediatric and adult brain tumors. Tumor and tumor microenvironment biopsies with multiomic analysis are key to understanding response and patient stratification, but brain tumors are particularly difficult for such biopsy collection. These workshop proceedings and commentary shed light on the status of immunotherapy in pediatric and adult brain tumor patients, including current research as well as opportunities for increasing future efforts to bring immunotherapy to the forefront of brain tumor management.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-022-03438-z


Association of the gut microbiome with cancer immunotherapy

"The gut microbiome, which refers to microorganisms and their genes, has a direct and systemic effect on host immunity. " Modulation of the gut microbiota modifies the immune pathways and influence the effectiveness of an immune checkpoint inhibitor. "In this article, we examine the evidence surrounding the role of the microbiome in cancer patients and examine the effects of microbiome on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-022-02180-2


In vitro and in vivo evaluation of DC-targeting PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating heparanase CD4^+ and CD8^+ T-cell epitopes for cancer immunotherapy

To achieve an effective cytotoxic T-cell response, we developed a novel immunotherapy model targeting antigens to dendritic cell receptors using a combination of heparanase CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitope peptides. " As a model antigen to increase immunogenicity, pegylated poly nanoparticles were used to encapsulate a combined heparanase CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitope alone or in combination with Toll-like receptor 3 and 7 ligands. T cells' vitro production and IFN-b3 production by T cells showed that the PLGA NPs encapsulating epitope peptides could be targeted and internalized by DCs more effectively, contributing to higher IL-12 production, T-cell proliferation, and IFN-u03b3 production by T cells in vitro. In conclusion, a PLGA NP vaccines targeting DEC-205 based on heparanase CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitopes are suitable immunogens for antitumor immunotherapy and have promising potential for clinical use. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-022-03209-1

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions