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Cancer Immunotherapy - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 10 June 2022

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Interaction between Bacteria and the Immune System for Cancer Immunotherapy: The α-GalCer Alliance

"Non-conventional T cells, such as u03b3u03b4 T cells and invariant natural killer T cells, are among the new cancer fighters. We searched the literature for bacter strains that can produce u03b1-GalCer and used available sequencing results to determine their presence in human tumor tissues and their relationship with survival. In mice, the modulatory effect of antibiotics on the concentration of u03b1-GalCer was determined. The three species were also identified in colon adenocarcinoma and rectum adenocarcinoma tissues, and Prevotella copri was also present in bone tumors and glioblastoma tissues, and glioblastoma tissues. In conclusion, u03b1-GalCer-producing bacteria are a part of the human gut microbiome and can invade tumor tissues. These results reveal a new mechanism of interaction between bacteria and immune cells: u03b1-GalCer produced by bacteria may infect non-conventional T cells in tumor tissues, where they can promote direct or indirect anti-tumor activity. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23115896


HydrAd: A Helper-Dependent Adenovirus Targeting Multiple Immune Pathways for Cancer Immunotherapy

"Adenoviruses have long been staple cancer gene therapy vectors for decades. " Therefore, the HDAd is an ideal cancer gene therapy vector because of its infection results in anti-viral immune stimulation that can be increased or directed toward the tumor via transgene expression. Tumor cell lysis and amplification of HDAd-encoded transgene expression were co-infection of tumor cells with an oncolytic Ad and an HDAd. The HydrAd is a zebrafish gene therapy developed by an HDAd-based cancer gene therapy that expresses multiple classes of immunomodulatory proteins in multiple axes of immune pathways. Overall, the HydrAd platform is a promising cancer immunotherapy agent against difficult solid tumors. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14112769


Tracing New Landscapes in the Arena of Nanoparticle-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

"Cancer immunotherapy, which uses the immune system of the patient to attack the cancer cells in a targeted way," the patient's cells are more effective than others by being less debilitating relative to the current treatment regimes. Many types of immune therapy, including monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, T-cell transfer therapy, or immune system modulators, have resulted in significant advances in immune surveillance over the past few decades. We discuss the latest uses of nanoparticles in the manufacture of ACT, cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, their location-specific delivery, and modulation of other endogenous immune cells in this article. "We also emphasize the benefits of using nanotechnology to solve a patient's highly coordinated and adaptive immune system in order to solve the challenges of diagnosing specific disease conditions and provide future directions in cancer immunotherapy. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnano.2022.911063


Targeting Cytokine Signals to Enhance γδT Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

"Understanding, u03b3-u03b4 cells support adaptive immune response by controlling other immune cells. " We wanted to sum up the latest understanding of antigen recognition by u03b3-u03b4T cells and the immune regulation in the tumor microenvironment by u03b3u03b4T cells. More importantly, we portrayed the polarization and plasticity of u03b4T cells in the presence of various cytokines and their combinations, which provided the basis for u03b3u03b4T cell-based cancer immunotherapy targeting cytokine signals in the presence of cytokine genes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.914839


Emerging roles of activating transcription factor (ATF) family members in tumourigenesis and immunity: Implications in cancer immunotherapy

ATFs, which stand for activating transcription factors, are a group of bZIP transcription factors that act as homodimers or heterodimers with a variety of other bZIP characteristics. " ATFs have a variety of functions, consistent with the variety of cellular processes that are reported to be controlled by ATFs. ATFs can also be characterized by neurodegenerative disorders and polycystic kidney disease, according to their expression and phosphorylation status. Thus, understanding ATFs' structure and function will provide insight into the basic regulatory mechanisms that influence how cells integrate extracellular and intracellular signals into genomic responses by transcription factors. The characterization of ATF dysfunction under pathological conditions, particularly in cancer biology and response to therapy, is vital in determining how to therapeutically utilize ATF2 or other pathways controlled by transcription factors. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gendis.2021.04.008


CD39 – A bright target for cancer immunotherapy

"The ATP-adenosine pathway acts as a key regulator of innate and adaptive immunity in the tumor microenvironment, and cancer immunology avoidance is largely dependent on the production of large amounts of immunosuppressive extracellular adenosine. " As a result, inhibition of eADO-producing enzymes and/or eADO receptors can effectively restore multiple immune cells' antitumor immunity. Recent clinical trials with antagonists targeting CD73 and A2A receptors have demonstrated promising therapeutic activity in cancer with multiple clinical trials currently being researched to modulate the eADO pathway in patients with cancer. Several inhibitors and clinical trials based on CD39 are being evaluated, with Owing to its superior feature of CD39 antagonism that hinges not only on preventing the accumulation of adenosine but also on the stableization of extracellular ATP to restore antitumor immunity. We herein investigate the effect of CD39 on tumor microenvironment with a focus on treatment preference. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113066


Advanced Biomaterials for Cell‐Specific Modulation and Restore of Cancer Immunotherapy

"In this review, emphasis is placed on how functional biomaterials can be used to facilitate cell-u2010immune disease therapy within the canceru2010immune cycle, with a special emphasis on antigenu2010presenting cells, T cells, and tumor microenvironment u2010resident cells. Here's a look at the latest advances in biomaterial-based cancer immunotherapy, including the following steps: identify the current progress in biomaterial-u2010 based immunotherapy and recommendations for more targeted tumor immunotherapy.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202200027


Next Generation Natural Killer Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

"Natural killer cells are a population of immune effector cells with potent anti-viral and anti-tumor activity; they are able to quickly identify and kill cancer cells without the need of prior stimulation. " Although NK cells are naturally contaminated with cytotoxic potential, a growing body of evidence shows the added benefit of engineering them to accurately target tumor cells, live longer in the host, and be more robust against the hostile tumor microenvironment. We'll address sourcing of NK cells, the methods available to engineer NK cells, latest clinical trials using engineered NK cells, research into the design of receptors that are specifically tailored for NK cells, and stealth techniques to minimize recipient immune responses. We will end with comments on the next generation of NK cell products, i. e. , armored NK cells with increased functionality, stability, tumor-infiltration capability, and ability to combat tumor heterogeneity and immune evasion. ".

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.886429


mRNA Vaccines: The Dawn of a New Era of Cancer Immunotherapy

"The COVID-19 pandemic epidemic in the early 21st century has aided in the use of mRNA techniques in SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and a great deal of interest has been shown in the study and development of mRNA cancer vaccines. " This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the development, delivery methods, immunologic functions, and antitumor immune response strategies for mRNA cancer vaccines. We list a few mRNA cancer vaccines that are recommended for cancer treatment and review clinical trials in the field of tumor immunotherapy.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.887125

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions