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Blood Sugar - MedlinePlus Genetics

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Last Updated: 10 September 2022

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Maturity-onset diabetes of the young

Diabetes in the young is one of several disorders that have been characterized by elevated blood sugar levels in a variety of conditions. In MODY, elevated blood sugar results from reduced production of insulin, a hormone that aids in controlling blood sugar levels. Insulin, specifically, regulates how glucose is transferred from the blood into cells, where it is used as an energy source. MODY Types MODY can be distinguished by their genetic causes. Both HNF1A and HNF4A -MODY and HNF4A -MODY have similar signs and symptoms that progress slowly over time. Small blood vessels in the eyes and kidneys can be damaged by uncontrolled high blood sugar over time. Damage to the front of the eye's light-sensitive tissue can cause diabetic retinopathy, which can lead to vision loss and eventual blindness. Kidney disease can cause kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. For example, babies with HNF4A-MODY tend to weigh more than average or have abnormally low blood sugar at birth, even though other signs of the condition do not appear until childhood or young adulthood. People with HNF1A-MODY are at a greater risk of developing noncancerous liver tumors known as hepatocellular adenomas. People of this kind have marginally elevated blood sugar levels, particularly in the morning before eating. Individuals affected by diabetes may have abnormalities of the pancreas or liver, or a form of arthritis called gout.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young


Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by abnormally elevated blood sugar levels. When blood sugar levels are elevated, the pancreas secretly converts insulin to move the excess glucose to cells, lowering the amount of glucose in the blood. Insulin resistance is the first sign of type 2 diabetes in which the body's cells secretly use insulin less effectively than normal. As insulin resistance rises, more insulin is required to maintain blood sugar levels in the normal range. Over time, beta cells become less able to react to blood sugar shifts, resulting in an insulin shortage that prevents the body from effectively lowering blood sugar levels. If blood sugar levels are not controlled by medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-term health problems such as heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and injury to the kidneys, eyes, and other organs of the body.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/type-2-diabetes


Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition that is characterized by abnormally elevated blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Symptom women do not have diabetes before pregnancy, and the majority of these women go back to being nondiabetic soon after the baby is born. In addition, around half of women with gestational diabetes have another form of diabetes, called type 2 diabetes, within a few years after they were born. Infants with gestational diabetes are also more likely to have dangerously low blood sugar levels soon after birth.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/gestational-diabetes


Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder that is characterized by abnormally elevated blood sugar levels. In this form of diabetes, insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas have been reduced. Insulin controls how much glucose is converted from the blood into cells for conversion to electricity conversion. Type 1 diabetes can be present at any age, from early childhood to late adulthood. These signs may recur during the course of the disease if blood sugar is not adequately controlled by insulin replacement therapy. Improper oversight may also contribute to blood sugar levels that are too low. Diabetes type 1 diabetes can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. A lack of glucose in cells causes the liver to try to compensate by pumping more glucose into the blood, and blood sugar can become extremely high. diabetic ketones can cause obesity-related ketones breakdown fats to produce energy-producing waste products named ketones, which can rise to dangerous levels in people with type 1 diabetes. paracidosis can cause coma and death in severe instances. Diabetes can cause damage to blood vessels and nerves, resulting in complications affecting many organs and tissues over many years. Kidney disease can also occur and can lead to kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. People with type 1 diabetes are also at an elevated risk of heart attacks, strokes, and urinary and sexual dysfunction.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/type-1-diabetes


Congenital hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is a medical disorder that causes individuals to have abnormally elevated blood sugar levels, which is a drug that helps regulate blood sugar levels. People with this condition have regular episodes of low blood sugar in the same manner. About 66% of infants with this disorder have a hypoglycemic episode within the first month of life. By early childhood, other children affected children develop hypoglycemia. Unlike traditional hypoglycemia episodes, which occur most often after periods of hunger or strenuous exercise, hypoglycemia in people with congenital hyperinsulinism can also arise after eating.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/congenital-hyperinsulinism


Type A insulin resistance syndrome

Insulin is used as electricity, and it helps control blood sugar levels by limiting how much sugar is transferred from the bloodstream into cells. Diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance syndrome, insulin resistance, impairs blood glucose regulation, leading to the disorder called diabetes mellitus, in which blood sugar levels can be dangerously high. In addition, type A insulin resistance syndrome's other signs and symptoms are also attributed to severe insulin resistance syndrome. Most females suffer with a skin disease called acanthosis nigricans, in which body folds and creases become thick, dark, and velvety. Females with type A insulin resistance syndrome are typically not overweight, contrary to most people with insulin resistance. In males, the signs of type A insulin resistance syndrome are more apparent. One of a string of related disorders characterized as inheriting severe insulin resistance syndromes is Type A insulin resistance syndromes.

Source link: https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/type-a-insulin-resistance-syndrome

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions