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"Abstract Background: "Abstract Background: As a non-lipid and common part of the Western diet, cholesterol levels may be a risk factor for prostate cancer. " This meta-analysis sought to investigate the connection between blood cholesterol levels and prostate cancer risk. Methods: An extensive search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE for prospective studies that have shown the connection between total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in blood and prostate cancer risk. The estimated risk ratios for the highest to lowest cholesterol levels were as follows: 1. 05 [95% confidence interval, 0. 93] for HDL, 1. 18 for LDL, and 1. 17 for LDL in the meta-analysis: 1. 05 [95% confidence interval, 0. 95] for TC, 0. 93 for HDL, 0. 21] for LDL. Conclusion: In this meta-analysis of 14 large prospective studies, blood TC, HDL, and LDL levels were not related to either overall prostate cancer risk or high-grade prostate cancer. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-14-1329
"Abstract Background: Untargeted metabolomics was used in case-control studies of adenocarcinoma lung cancer to identify and test metabolite classifiers in serum and plasma as potential lung cancer diagnostic markers. " Methods: In two separate case-u2013control experiments, serum and plasma were collected and used. In ADC1, 43 adenocarcinoma cases and 31 controls, there were 52 adenocarcinoma cases and 31 controls, as well as 43 controls in ADC2. Differential testing was carried out on ADC1 and the top candidates for serum and plasma, which were then tested on an independent set of serum and plasma samples. Aspartate demonstrated the highest accuracy in serum for an individual metabolite classifier, whereas pyrophosphate had the highest accuracy in plasma when independently tested. Both blood matrices had similar results, and a comparison of overall diagnostic results revealed similar results. Implication: These biomarkers may help with early detection and diagnosis of lung cancer.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-15-0427
"Methods: DNA methylation was determined in 68 subjects with history of cancer at the time of enrollment and 62 who died of cancer during follow-up in 753 male and female adults. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C> T genotype and plasma folate concentrations were also determined for the suspected gene-nutrient interaction that affects DNA methylation. Patients with cancer from controls were characterized by a DNA methylation threshold of 4. 7 percent, meaning that those with DNA methylation less than 4. 7 percent had an elevated risk of cancer than those with higher risk of cancer. MTHFR677C > T genotype and folate are both involved in DNA methylation analysis, meaning that MTHFR677TT carriers with low folate had the lowest DNA methylation and concomitantly demonstrated a higher incidence of cancer history. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-12-0859
"Abstract Background: Phenotypic biomarkers of DNA damage repair may help with cancer risk prediction. " The ratio of ionizing radiationu2013-induced u03b3-H2AX level to the baseline was used to measure interindividual differences in DSB's response and risk of lung cancer by using unconditional multivariable logistic regression with adjustment of age, sex, ethnicity, smoking status, family history of lung cancer, dust exposure, and emphysema. In quartile analysis, there was also a significant dose-response relationship between the u03b3-H2AX ratio and lung cancer risk. With an increasing number of risk factors, the analysis of joint effects with other epidemiologic risk factors revealed increased risk. Conclusion: u03b3-H2AX activity as shown by testing DSB- damage in ionizing radiationu2013irradiated PBLs can be a novel phenotypic marker of lung cancer risk. Impact: "U03b3-H2AX assay is a robust and quantifiable image-based cytometer system that monitors mutagen-induced DSB responses in PBLs as a potential lung cancer risk indicator. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-12-0794
Background: "Abstract Background: The annual colorectal cancer screening with fecal occult blood test is a noninvasive alternative to colonoscopy, which occurs every ten years. If false-positive FOBT results are widespread, many patients selecting an FOBT therapy will be exposed to the same invasive testing as those selecting a colonoscopy regimen. After being exposed to annual FOBT screening for ten years, the aim of this report was to determine the likelihood of encountering a false-positive. Methods: Patients aged 50 to 79 years under FOBT testing at Hemopolis Sensa between 1997 and 2009 in Washington state, Washington State, documented the date and findings of each FOBT test, as well as subsequent colorectal cancer diagnoses. "We used logistic regression to analyze correlations between patient characteristics and odds of a positive FOBT with no invasive cancer diagnosis within 1 year," the author says.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-13-0254
"Screening with a blood test could raise screening rates," a researcher says. We estimated the comparative efficiency and cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening with emerging biomarkers, as shown by a methylated Septin 9 DNA plasma assay compared to established practices. Effects: mSEPT9 reduced colorectal cancer incidence by 35% to 41% and colorectal cancer mortality by 53% to 61% in the base case, compared to no screening, with a savings of $ 8,400 to $11,500 per year increased to $11,500 per year. m SEPT9 appears to be fast and cost-effective compared to no screening. It is yet to be established whether colorectal cancer screening with a blood test will increase screening uptake or long-term adherence relative to established strategies. Impact: Our report gives insight into the potential role of colorectal cancer screening with blood-based biomarkers.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-13-0204
"In this report, we tested a new colorectal cancer screening technique that combined iFOBT and FmiRT to increase the sensitivity relative to iFOBT alone. " Fecal RNA was extracted from residuum of iFOBT's siduum, and then the expression of 14 species of miRNA was determined for the FmiRT using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Results: The expression of fecal miR-106a in iFOBT+ patients and u2212 patients was significantly higher than in healthy volunteers. FIGURE and FmiRT were respectively 70% and 96 percent, respectively. Using fecal miR-106a, one quarter of colorectal cancer patients with false-negative iFOBT seemed to be a big positive after adding FmiRT. Conclusions: Fecal miR-106a is a good molecular marker to distinguish colorectal cancer patients from those with poor iFOBT findings. In those with negative iFOBT findings, we have shown the effectiveness of fecal miR-106a to identify the colorectal cancer patients among those with poor iFOBT results. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-13-0512
"Abstract Background: Blood leukocytes from patients with solid tumors have remarkably diverse and distinct patterns of DNA methylation, consistent with cancer-associated DNA methylation. " Methods: Using epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiling of purified peripheral blood leukocyte subtypes from healthy donors, we found differentially methylated regions within leukocyte subtypes. Results: A substantial number of the top 50 leukocyte DMRs were significantly different methylated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases and ovarian cancer cases, compared to cancer-free controls. Together with leukocyte DMRs, cancer case status for all three cancer types was significantly linked to thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, and ovarian cancer, respectively, and forecast cancer status with a high degree of certainty. These findings reveal that shifts in leukocyte subpopulations may be responsible for a significant amount of variation in solid tumor methylation patterns in peripheral blood DNA.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-12-0361
"Methods: We prospectively reviewed the relationship of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with skin squamous cell carcinoma in 241 cases and 241 controls within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, as well as the risk of skin squamous cell carcinoma in 623 cases and 1,943 controls within the Nurses' Wellbeing Study, and the risk of skin basal cell carcinoma in 623 cases and 241 controls. Conclusion: We found no evidence that the telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was related to the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Impact: According to our prospective review, telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is less likely to play a significant role in nonmelanoma skin cancer formation. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-11-0072
"Abstract Background: New research has shown a correlation between non-O blood group and pancreatic cancer risk. In two large prospective cohorts, we investigated the connection between ABO blood group and the risk of incident colorectal cancer. The multivariate-adjusted HR of blood group A, 1. 20 for blood group B, and 1. 08 for blood group AB was 1. 08, relative to people with blood group O. These results do not point to an association between ABO blood group and the risk of colorectal cancer. ".
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.epi-10-1250
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