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There have been three epidemic waves of H5N8 avian influenza worldwide to date. Two distinct genotypes were found in a genetic analysis of 10 H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds. Besides, there were significant differences in antigenicity as compared to Re-11 vaccine strain and vaccinated chickens were not fully shielded from the challenge from the high dose of H5N8 virus.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.893253
Wild birds can carry avian influenza viruses, including those with pandemic or panzootic potential, long distances. Despite being broad, many studies take account of host diversity when estimating AIV spread. We analyzed AIV genomic sequences from North American wild birds, including 303 newly sequenced isolates, in order to determine interspecies and geographic migration patterns among several co-circulating subtypes. Patterns of transition between species were positively associated with breeding habitat range overlap and negatively related to host genetic distance, and negatively associated with host genetic distance.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009973
The spread of HPAIV within wild water bird populations can result in viral contamination of natural habitats. In three experimental settings, the role of small shallow water bodies as a transmission medium for AIV among mallards is investigated here. In groups with access to a small 100 L water pool, Delayed was the initial cause but a rapid spread of infection was spread by two mallards inoculated with either LP or HP AIV to each eight sentinel mallards. The HPAIV infection began when the virus was dispersed in the water pool, causing titres as low as 102 TCID50 L1 was sufficient. An effective method of virus transmission by infected mallards can be described as "unloading" of virus infectivity from contaminated plumage into water bodies. Surface water in small shallow water bodies, as a source of aquatic wild bird AIV infection, may play a vital role as a mediator.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2065937
The avian influenza virus clade 2. 3. 4. 4b has resurfaced in the United Kingdom in the winter 2021–2022 season, with over 90 cases of HPAIV detected among poultry and captive birds in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. We present an investigation into HPAI H5N1 in poultry species and captive or wild birds that tested positive between October 2021 and February 2022. Both Galliformes and Anseriformes had common pathological findings in Pancreatic and splenic necrosis. In comparison to those reported in previous seasons with other H5Nx HPAIV subtypes, we also saw an increase in the detection of pathological changes in a wider range of Anseriformes, especially in domestic ducks.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100392
In 33 EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom in poultry, from 9 December 2021 to 20,653 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections were recorded in 33 EU/EEA countries and the UK in both wild and captive birds. Approximately two outbreaks of chicken were confirmed in France since October 2021, followed by Italy, Hungary, and Poland; the reporting countries accounted for 12. 8 million birds in this reporting period, representing 12. 8 million birds in the HPAI-affected poultry establishments. The chicken industry in Europe will continue to be in danger for the poultry industry in the coming months if HPAI viruses persist and persist. Since the last survey, one human infection with A, China 17 human infections with A, and A, Cambodia 15 infections with A virus have been reported in the UK.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7289
ABSTRACT HISTORIC AVIAN influenza viruses of subtype H5Nx outbreaks in poultry, captive birds, and wild birds in the Netherlands between October 2020 and June 2021 in the Netherlands. H5N8 was the most prevalent subtype of H5N8, followed by H5N1 and H5N1, but also viruses of subtypes H5N3, H5N4, and H5N5 were identified on HPAI viruses. Multiple independent introductions of HPAI H5N8 viruses appeared in the Netherlands, likely followed by local dissemination, which resulted in at least two clusters of related viruses. Independent introductions from wild birds at ten poultry farms were found in the report, but two outbreaks of transmission between farms could not be excluded, according to the report. In dead wild birds of 33 species, HPAI H5Nx viruses were present in dead wild birds of 33 species, but only infected geese and swans were found, with the majority of infected geese and swans. This research gives further insight into the genetic diversity of HPAI H5Nx viruses found by reassortment and evolution, as well as the dissemination of these viruses among wild birds and poultry. IMPORTANCE migratory wild birds carry highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Multiple virus incursions occurred in the Netherlands in 2020–2021, causing outbreaks of wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands in 2020-2021, which suggested that multiple virus outbreaks occurred. Viruses of subtype H5N8 were mainly found, but other subtypes of the virus were found that likely originated by exchange of genetic information before these viruses were introduced into the Netherlands. The H5N8 virus causes a higher mortality in chickens than in ducks, according to We found that the H5N8 virus causes a higher mortality in chickens than in ducks. This report provides more insight into the origins and dissemination of HPAI viruses in wild birds and poultry.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02499-21
However, the origins and biological characteristics of H10 viruses in migratory wild birds are largely unknown. In this research, we conducted continuous surveillance to track avian influenza virus distribution in eastern China and isolated five H10N4 and two H10N8 viruses from migratory birds in 2020. H10N4 and H10N8 viruses' neuraminidase genes were discovered in migratory birds in Eurasia from the widespread HxN4 and H5N8 viruses. H10N8 and H10N3 viruses in China's occasional human infections have raised public concern regarding the potential pandemic danger posed by the H10 viruses. In eastern China, the North American H10 viruses were successfully spread to Asia by migratory birds and then reassort with other subtypes to produce novel H10N4 and H10N8 viruses.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00807-22
In Mongolia in 2020, ten novel avian influenza A viruses were discovered, some of which contained host-specific antibodies associated with mammalian infection. We also compared their antigenicity to previous H5 Clade 2. 3. 4. 4 human isolates by cross-hemagglutination inhibition. In addition, our results showed that their isolates are less virulent in mice than the previously reported H5 human isolates. However, their antigenicity is not like that of other HPAIVs H5 clade 2. 3. 4. 4, thereby supporting their ongoing monitoring as potential infectious risks and the development of novel candidate vaccines for their neutralization are important.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2069515
The Scottish Government Animal Health and Welfare Division ordered a research to determine the danger of HPAI incursion into the gamebird industry in Great Britain via a licensed hatchery in order to raise future disease readiness. The Hatchery designation is a legal requirement for hatcheries located within disease control zones or that have business connections to facilities located in disease control zones in order to continue operating amid an HPAI outbreak. The overall likelihood of the HPAI virus introduction into a designated hatchery by hatching egg movement is considered low. The overall likelihood of onward transmission of the HPAI virus from a designated hatchery to day-old chick movements is also considered low.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.877197
H9N2 viruses are not yet enzootic in Japan; however, avian influenza viruses, including H5N1, H7N9, H5N6, and H9N2, have been consistently identified in raw chicken meat carried by international flight passengers from Asian countries to Japan. Although H9N2 virus-contaminated chicken products intercepted by the animal quarantine service at the Japan border have been identified in chickens and ducks, the biological characteristics of those H9N2 viruses in mammals remain uncertain. Our findings reveal that H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from raw chicken meat products illegally imported to Japan can infect and cause disease in mammals.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14040728
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