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There have been three outbreak waves of H5N8 avian influenza around the world to date. In China, active and passive surveillance were carried out to track H5N8 viruses from wild birds. Two distinct genotypes were found in the genetic analysis of ten H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds. In addition, the high dose of H5N8 virus in comparison to the Re-11 vaccine strain and vaccinated chickens were not completely shielded against the threat from the threat.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.893253
Gut microbiota homeostasis is essential for host health and well-being, but medications can influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota. To analyze the changes in the bacterial community composition of gut microbiota following the introduction of avian influenza vaccine and anthelmintic therapy, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to identify and compare the bacterial community composition before and after the therapy. On the day of the therapy, the alpha number of the red-crowned cranes' gut microbiota reduced and then fluctuated over time. The key function of the gut microbiota is linked to metabolism, according to the present study, and it can recover over time.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091183
For the first time, we have published a comprehensive evolutionary study of the Mexican lineage H5N2 avian influenza virus using complete genome sequences, from its first discovery in 1993 to 2019. According to our report, the Mexican lineage H5N2 AIV descended on North American wild bird gene pool viruses around 1990 and is now present in poultry populations of Mexico, the Dominican Republic, and Taiwan. Gene reassortments and mutations acquired over time are present in this study, which leads to the evolution of Mexican lineage H5N2 AIVs. Based on the amino acid sequences of the hemagglutinin protein cleavage site motif, as well as the findings of the intravenous pathogenicity index, the new circulating Mexican lineage H5N2 AIVs are classified as LPAIV. The positive selection of antigenic drift mutants in the Mexican H5N2 AIVs has most likely played a significant role.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050958
In many outbreaks in the last decade, highly pathogenic avian influenza clade 2. 3. 4. 4 viruses have been found to be the source of infections. We set out to investigate the possibility of H5N6 virus-like particles as a broad-spectrum vaccine agent against H5Nx viruses in this project. We cloned the full-length M1 gene and H5N6 genes derived from the H5N6-Sichuan gene and H5, N6 genes into the pFASTBac vector and created the VLPs using the baculovirus-insect cell culture method. For mouse immunization, the H5N6 VLPs and 293T mammalian cell-expressed H5+N6 proteins were sent to mice. Antisera against the H5+N6 protein caused 80 to 320 neutrizing antibody titers to various H5Nx pseudoviruses, according to 80 to 320 titers. H5N6 VLPs, on the other hand, not only prompted increased neutralizing antibody titers from 640 to 1280, but also stimulated higher IL-2, IL-4, IFN-, and TNF production, raising the risk of broad-spectrum H5N6 avian influenza vaccines.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050925
The study looked at undergraduate students enrolled at two public universities with a ages range from 20 to 50 years. Findings Of the 300 respondents, 97. 7% and 92. 3 percent were aware of the term avian influenza contagious infection and its pathogenicity related to zoonotic risk. Participants with more than 80% of participants reported that infected poultry and birds act as a potential source of avian influenza infection. After coming into contact with infected birds, our research revealed the connection of contagious influenza disease among poultry workers. Conclusions The study revealed that among the students' knowledge, attitude, and practices of avian were all high, which may help the Indonesian government implement policies and public health programs to reduce the disease burden among the general population.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1018842/v1
During the spring wave and for 187 index cases during the winter wave, household contact details was collected for 125 index cases and 184 index cases in China to determine human-to-human transmission of the avian influenza A virus. We expect the household secondary attack rate among humans to be 1. 4% under plausible assumptions about the natural history of disease and the relative transmission frequencies in settings other than household to be 0. 08 compared to 0. 08.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.es2015.20.10.21056
Commercially produced vaccines against H9N2 avian influenza have been produced in China since the 1990s and exhibit exceptional immunogenicity with high HI antibodies. H9N2 virus vectored vaccines have been used in chickens, providing safe protection against the disease vectored virus. We looked at avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 as a vector for producing an H9N2 vaccine by intranasal delivery here. We introduced hemagglutinin in H9N2's junction of P and M genes in the APMV-2-T4 genome as a flanked by the gene start, gene end, and UTR of each gene of APMV-2-T4 to produce seven recombinant APMV-2-HA, rAPMV-2-HA, displaying HA, rAPMV-2-TAS, causing HA and rAPMV-2-HA, HA, hetinine HA, hetin the APMV-2-H, APMV-2-HA, and UTR-UATR-UA, rAPMV-2-H, HA, RA-UA, APMV-2-RA, RAF-2-HA, HA, APMV-2-HA, HI, HA, rAPMV-2-HA, HA, RA, HA, rAPMV-2-HA, r In the oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from chickens challenged with H9N2 virus, immunization with rAPMV-2-NPUTR-HA produced rapid H9N2-specific antibody responses and provided complete immunity protection, preventing viral transmission in the oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14050918
Abstract Live bird market surveillance was carried out in the Northeast United States to look for avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry and market environments. H2N2 LPAIV reservoirs are often found in domestic ducks and market environment with viral transmissions between birds and environment, allowing viral reproduction and distribution in domestic gallinaceous poultry in LBMs, suggesting important roles for domestic ducks and contaminated LBM environments as reservoirs for maintenance and dissemination of the H2N2 LPAIV.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/veac009
After experimental infection, the latest H5N1 reassortants quickly infect and kill chicken and quail, and some were associated with significant mortality of chickens in Hong Kong's poultry market markets. H5N1 viruses in the retail and live poultry markets early in the season of human disease resulted in pre-emptive intervention, but these recently found, highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses have caused pandemic anxiety.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.132268999
avian and swine H9 influenza hemagglutininins were determined to avian and human cell receptor analogs in Hong Kong in 1997 and 1999. Biological links at the glycosidic linkage between human receptors and those seeking avian receptors and how avian and human receptors are distinguished by atomic contacts at the glycosidic linkage. The latest structures are compared to previously reported crystal structures of HA/sialoside complexes of the 1968 Hong Kong Influenza virus pandemic and analyzed in connection with HA sequences of all 15 subtypes and receptor affinity data to make it clearer how receptor-binding locations of HAs from avian viruses change as the virus adapts to humans.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.201401198
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