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In chickens, two common respiratory diseases are infectious bronchitis virus and avian influenza virus. These viruses can cause significant financial losses and severe problems in the poultry industry around the world, because of the coinfection. Three infected groups' transcriptome profiles were differentially expressed in tracheal tissue of three infected groups in comparison to the control group, allowing us to examine transcriptome changes during the early stages of infection. Upregulated genes in the experimental groups were higher than those that were not. Regulators were more active than those that were not. Regulated genes were also higher than those that were not. In this group, a more pronounced immune response was observed; further, cytokine receptor interaction, Toll-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, Janus kinase/signal transducer, and transcription promoter were among the key regulated genes; cytokine receptor interaction, cytokine receptor interaction, regulator of transcription, and activator of transcription were all observed; among the coinfected individuals were all regulated genes The findings of this paper may help to recognize transcriptome changes in the trachea in the early stages of virus infection.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-022-01893-w
Both theoretical and numerical findings indicate that whether the avian influenza epidemic decreases or not depends entirely on the temperature in deterministic or random environments; adequate hospital infrastructure, government interventions, and noise can reduce the number of infections; and using multiple control tactics simultaneously is more effective in reducing the number of infections than using a single strategy.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11071-022-07422-6
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