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Results in Jordan: The risk assessment of rabies and H5N1 avian influenza is moderate, with moderate uncertainty. With moderate uncertainty, the risk assessment report for H5N1 AI showed a low likelihood estimate despite moderate uncertainty. The impact of H5N1 AI in Jordan is moderate, despite low levels of confusion. Conclusions: The tripartite JRA OT has published a comprehensive and easy-to-follow guide on how to gather expertise and data from all relevant sectors in order to assess risks from zoonotic diseases and contributes to the identification and monitoring of identified threats at the humanu2013environment interface.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2022.100453
During an investigation into H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in Guangxi, China, two individuals with diarrhoea, mild abdominal pain, and mild arthralgia symptoms were identified. The patients at a backyard chicken farm were isolated from one of two patients, a pet cat, and a dead chicken bred by the patients at a backyard farm. In the four H9N2 isolates and hemagglutinin T138A, which are all genes present, were identified for all genes, and nucleotide sequence identity was found in the receptor binding domain, resulting in nucleotide polymorphisms that were exclusive to the female patient isolates. In addition, H9N2 viruses of human origin are genetically diverse and interspersed with the common poultry-origin H9N2 AIVs. Both animal and human health are at a high risk of H9N2 AIVs in public health, according to these results, and effective prevention and surveillance steps against H9N2 AIVs should be considered and carried out for both animal and human health.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2143282
Avian influenza viruses are extremely harmful to the poultry industry and pose a significant threat to humans. This report detailed the long-term surveillance of AIVs in Shandong province's live bird market from 2013 to 2019. With the median pairwise sequence identities ranging from 0. 96 to 0. 98 for all segments, Then, the complete genome sequences of 62 representative H9N2 viruses, including one human isolate from a 7-year-old boy in were found and they were genetically identical to each other. The new sequenced viruses were most similar to viruses isolated in chickens in mainland China, particularly the provinces in Eastern China, where the provinces were located. These recently sequenced H9N2 viruses, according to phylogenetic testing, belong to the same family for all segments except PB1. Overall, the report expands our knowledge of AIV epidemic and evolution and provides a foundation for effective management of AIVs in China.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.1030545
In particular, exosomal miRNAs influence recipient cell gene expression by inhibiting the expression of target mRNAs. We investigated the miRNA expression profiles of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1-infected White Leghorn chickens and analyzed their target genes in this research. Exosomes were isolated from the blood serum of White Leghorn chickens for small RNA sequencing after three days of infection with A/chicken/Vietnam/NA-01/2019. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed using miRDB and TargetScan for DE miRNA analysis. Moreover, with the RNAhybrid algorithm, we predicted DE miRNA binding sites in HPAIV RNA segments. The results of this research provide a theoretical basis for exploring exosomal miRNA regulatory mechanisms in reaction to HPAIV H5N1 infection and the detection of novel vaccine candidates.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2022.102123
With a total of 2,467 outbreaks in poultry, 47. 7 million birds culled in the affected establishments, 187 outbreaks in captive birds, and 3,573 HPAI virus cases in wild birds in Europe, affecting 37 European countries, the 2021-2022 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic has been seen in Europe so far. Several colonies of the United European mainland coast of Europe died from HPAI A virus epidemic widespread and severe mortality. Between June and August 2022, unprecedentedly high number of HPAI virus infections in wild birds in the United States, representing an ongoing threat to domestic birds. HPAI A viruses were also present in wild mammal species in Europe and North America, and they provided genetic evidence of migration to replicating in mammals.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7597
However, the role of pigeons and quails in AIV transmission is still unclear. Hence, we conducted this research to find out the prevalence and risk factors of AIV subtypes in pigeons and quails in Bangladesh's live bird markets. We took oropharyngeal and cloacal swab samples from 626 birds in eight districts of Bangladesh from 2017 to 2021. We then used exploratory analysis to explore AIV's seasonal and temporal patterns as well as a mixed effect logistic model to determine the parameter that affects AIV's presence in pigeons and quails. We found that AIV prevalence in pigeons is 17. 3 percent, and in quail, 38. 7 percent is 38. 7 percent. In both pigeons and quail, we found that the prevalence of AIV in the dry season was greater in the dry season than in the wet season. The vendors with waterfowl, purchasing birds from the wholesale market instead of farms, mixing sick birds with the healthier ones, and mingling unsold birds with new birds were all significantly more likely to be positive for AIV than those that did not have these characteristics. We also discovered that AIV's odds were more than twice as high in quail as in pigeons. In addition, the likelihood of AIV detection in sick and dead birds was 4. 19 times higher than in healthy birds. To reduce the risk of AIV infection in pigeons and quail in Bangladesh, we recommend improving biosecurity at the vendor level in LBM.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.1016970
Although most common avian influenza viruses, such as H5N1, H5N6, and H7N9, have been found to often infect humans, acute encephalitis in humans has not been identified, but acute encephalitis caused by HPAIV has been rare in humans. We introduce the first significant case of acute encephalitis with mild pneumonia caused by the H5N6 virus. On January 25th, 2022, a 6-year-old girl with severe medical signs was admitted to our hospital and quickly developed into seizures and coma. The Cerebrospinal fluid was contaminated with elevated protein and white cells. This virus was a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A virus that was associated with clade 2. 3. 4. 4b, according to phylogenic testing.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2122584
ABSTRACT Six highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses were discovered in migratory birds in Hubei Province in November 2021. According to a Phylogenetic review, the viruses in the report included two different reassortants of H5N1 viruses that were circulating in Eurasia and low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Importance In Hubei Province, we obtained complete genomes of six H5N1 viruses from dead or rescued wild birds. In central China, our research examined the common patterns of H5N1 viruses in wild birds and updated the viral population data of H5N1 viruses.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02315-22
The highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus has spread widely around the world since its first detection in 1996. Between 2003 and 2016, the present research sought to increase the understanding of HPAIv H5N1's evolution and temporal dynamics in Indonesian poultry between 2003 and 2016. The common ancestor of Indonesian poultry HPAIv H5N1 was discovered about five years after the common ancestor of HPAI A. This report also showed the divergence of H5N1 clade 2. 3. 2. 1c from H5N1 clade 2. 3. 2. 1b, according to this report. Both clades 2. 3. 2. 1c and 2. 3. 2. 1 billion share a common ancestor, clade 1, suggesting that clade 2. 3. 2. 1 originated and diverged from China and other Asian nations. The exact role of wild birds in the dissemination of HPAIv in Indonesia is currently unknown because there was little sequence and surveillance data for the HPAIv A virus in wild birds in Indonesia.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v14102216
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