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Autism Spectrum Disorder - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 10 May 2022

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WHODAS-Child: psychometric properties of the WHODAS 2.0 for children and youth among Italian children with autism spectrum disorder.

Purpose A Contribution To the Italian version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2. 0 for children and youth, without regard to intellectual impairment, was postponed among children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. The original English version was turned into Italian, as well as the Italian version of the WHODAS 2. 0 for adults. The WHODAS-Child's version of autism spectrum disorder shows to be a reliable and valid way to determine children and youth functioning in the domains of activity and participation.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35532030


A meta-analytic investigation of grey matter differences in anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder.

Both Autism Spectrum Disorder and AN population have these behaviors, and a proportionately higher number of anorexic patients with ASD have symptoms. A systematic review of structural MRI data with the intention of identifying common structural neural correlates of both AN and ASD. No consistent neuroanatomic abnormality associated with ASD has been documented, according to study that suggests that reported behavioral similarities between those with AN and ASD are due to neuroanatomical structural similarities.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35526083


Contributing factors to healthcare costs in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder are more likely to use healthcare than those without disabilities, causing higher medical expenses to families and health care services, as well as high hospital prices. This study was designed to investigate healthcare costs and its determinants in individuals with ASD. The majority of direct medical spending on people with ASD was spent on Therapeutic interventions, outpatient visits, and medications. According to a number of studies, the absence of health care, associated with morbidities, more acute signs, younger age groups, and lower socioeconomic status are all related to higher medical expenditure in individuals with ASD. Conclusions This systematic analysis found a variety of causes, including lower SES and a lack of health care, which are correlated with higher healthcare expenses in people with ASD. Our research supports the development of policy options to minimize financial risks in families of people with ASD in countries that do not have a tax-based or universal health care system.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35524328


Effectiveness of psychological techniques in dental management for children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review.

Background The growing number of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the United States has increased, suggesting that dental specialists be more familiar with the treatment options for these special needs children in order to ensure safe, well-accepted, and effective administration while in the dental office. Aim This paper was designed to provide you with a greater understanding of some of the most innovative and effective strategies to dealing with children with ASD in dental settings. Original full-text papers including randomised controlled trials and all other forms of non-randomized controlled studies demonstrating relevant intervention studies in English were accepted without any publication time limit. Conclusions Our review found no conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of new psychological and non-pharmacological strategies used to treat children with ASD in dental settings, but not in dental settings. However, this report contained valuable information on some recent studies that sought to gain insight into the care of children with ASD for dental professionals.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35524299


The electroretinogram b-wave amplitude: a differential physiological measure for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the most common childhood developmental disorder. Reduction of retinal responses in ASD has been reported, but no information about retinal activity in ADHD has been reported. In this research, we compared the light-adapted ERGs of people with ADHD, ASD, and controls to see if retinal responses differ between these neurodevelopmental conditions. In those with ADHD, statistically significant increases of the ERG b-wave amplitudes, PhNR responses, and faster times of the b-wave time-to-peak were found in those with ADHD compared to both the control and ASD groups. At 1. 204 log phot cd. m. -2 flash amplitude, the highest rise in the b-wave amplitudes associated with ADHD was recorded at 1. 204 log phot cd. s. m. -2 flash strength, at which the b-wave amplitude in ASD was much smaller than that in the controls. Conclusions The ERG b-wave amplitude appears to be a distinctive difference between ADHD and ASD, which produced a changed pattern of b-wave responses.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35524181


Evaluation of the corpus callosum using magnetic resonance imaging histogram analysis in autism spectrum disorder.

Histogram analysis is a texture analysis technique that can be used in medical images. It was designed to analyze corpus callosum in magnetic resonance images using histogram analysis of pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder in order to compare them to healthy controls. Methods This report was conducted in 29 children with ASD and 29 healthy children with normal brain MRIs. Images were obtained with a 1. 5 T scanner unit for brain magnetic resonance imaging in high-resolution three-dimensional turbo field echo images. In addition, the corpus callosum area was significantly smaller in the ASD relative to the controls. Conclusions by the end of our study ASD callosum of patients with ASD differed from healthy controls by histogram analysis, despite the fact that they were expected in brain MRI as normal. We believe that histogram analysis can be used to identify potentially affected areas of the brain in ASD patients.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35523430


Modeling the dynamic brain network representation for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

The dynamic functional connectivity analysis yields valuable insight for investigating functional brain activity that supports different cognitive processes. Modeling spatio-temporal interactions in functional brain networks is vital for understanding autism spectrum disorder's functional mechanisms. The temporal multi-graph series's inconsistency is then eliminated by temporal multi-graph clustering. A graph structure-aware LSTM such as Then is a graph structure-aware LSTM that has been further developed to capture temporal graph embedding. The latest dynamic brain network embedding learning framework for autism brain imaging data exchange study shows that the proposed dynamic brain network embedding learning outperforms state-of-the-art brain network classification schemes.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35522357


The mediating role of gaze patterns in the association of child sleep disturbances and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder.

Sleep disturbances are particularly risk among children with autism spectrum disorder, but the exact mechanism underlying the connection between sleep disruptions and ASD core symptoms is largely unknown. This report investigated the connection between sleep disruptions and ASD core symptoms, as well as the mediating role of gaze patterns during the facial emotion recognition task. Using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire, parents reported their children's sleep disturbances and ASD core signs. sleep disturbances were more frequent in ASD core symptoms of social interaction, communication, and tightly controlled, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour; and typical gaze patterns partially explained the connection between sleep disturbances and ASD core symptoms.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35521660


Do comorbid symptoms discriminate between autism spectrum disorder, ADHD and nonverbal learning disability?

Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders must be characterized in order to determine their diagnosis. Children with various developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and nonverbal learning disability may have comorbid symptoms of anxiety and depression as well as problems with pragmatic language, according to study. In terms of their diagnostic accuracy, the two research objectives were to determine whether pragmatic language difficulties could be distinguished between the three clinical profiles. For this purpose, 107 people from 8 to 16 years old with a diagnosis of ASD, ADHD, or NLD were compared to a group of normally growing children. We discovered that pragmatic language difficulties distinguished children with ASD, ADHD, or NLD from typical-developing children, clearly. ASD and NLD were also identified correctly by pragmatic language difficulties, which must also be considered accurately between ASD and NLD.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35526491


Evaluation of an artificial intelligence-based medical device for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder can be diagnosed successfully at 18 months, but significant diagnostic delays persist in the United States. This double-blinded, multi-site, prospective, and active comparator cohort research investigated the effectiveness of an artificial intelligence-based software as a Medical Device meant to support primary care healthcare professionals in diagnosing ASD. The device can be configured to produce either an ASD positive, ASD negative, or indeterminate output from three distinct inputs in a gradient-boosted decision tree machine learning algorithm. In a cohort of 18-72-month-olds with developmental delay issues, this report compares Device outputs to diagnostic agreement by two or more independent experts. Device output PPV for all study participants was 80. 8%, with NPV of 98. 3%. The device does promise to greatly raise the number of children diagnosed with ASD in a primary care setting, potentially facilitating earlier intervention and more effective use of specialist resources.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35513550

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions