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Autism Spectrum Disorder - DOAJ

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Last Updated: 10 May 2022

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Integration of Urine Proteomic and Metabolomic Profiling Reveals Novel Insights Into Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. To gain insight into ASD's molecular origins, we conducted comparative integrated proteomic and metabolomic studies of urine samples from children with ASD and healthy children. In ASD patients, the proteomic response was also found eight signaling pathways that were significantly impaired; 3 of which were related to the neuroimmune response. Tryptophan, which is also related to the neuroimmune response, has been shown to play a potential role in ASD. Six signaling pathways were significantly enhanced in ASD patients, according to three of whom were correlated with reduced neuroinflammation. We also found a correlation between prostaglandin E2 levels and the inflammatory reaction in ASD.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.780747


The oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism rs2268491 and serum oxytocin alterations are indicative of autism spectrum disorder: A case-control paediatric study in Iraq with personalized medicine implications.

The OXT receptor controls OXT's effects on the social brain. In a pediatric population in Iraq, this review investigated the clinical value of blood OXT serum levels and the OXT receptor genotype as biomarkers of autism and its severity. Using odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals and the Chi-square test, the effect of genotype and allele distributions in various patient groups was determined. Results Study findings showed a high degree of consanguinity, an ASD recurrence rate, and family history. Patients with ASD with ASD were noticeably higher than those with control. ASD patients have significantly lower genotype CC frequency and a significantly higher risk of the heterozygous CT genotype relative to controls, according to the OXTR gene rs2268491 genotyping results. With the TT genotype, ASD patients had the highest OXT levels. In ASD males, the T allele frequency was higher. Compared to females, males with ASD males had significantly lower frequency of the CC genotype relative to females. Whereas, the CT genotype was significantly higher in autistic males than in females, showing a similar pattern. Conclusion Peripheral OXT and OXTR gene variations are potential biomarkers of social stability in the ASD patient setting. Patients with ASD are categorized into severity groups, revealing substantial differences in both OXT and OXTR genotypes and allele distributions that can be sex dependent. Patients with ASD who require neuropeptide enhancement in social settings will need personalized medicine strategies to properly identify patients with OXT-based therapies and properly identify patients with ASD who need neuropeptide boosters in social settings.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0265217


Shared Etiology in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Epilepsy with Functional Disability

Autism spectrum disorders and epilepsies are heterogeneous human disorders with miscellaneous pathophysiology and pathophysiology. Detailed insights into the excitatory/inhibitory balance ratio are discussed here, as well as some of an epileptiform process that may contribute to both overconnectivity and genetic disorders, in which autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy often co-occur. Both autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy co-occurrence are discussed along with the most effective pharmacological drugs that shield patient cognition and behaviour.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5893519


FECTS: A Facial Emotion Cognition and Training System for Chinese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

We discuss in this article a novel framework for human-computer-robot interaction and introduce a preliminary intervention research for improving the emotional awareness of Chinese children with an autism spectrum disorder. The training record of the Chinese autistic children using our FECTS device will be uploaded and stored in the cloud-based assessment database. During the expression imitation phase, deep-learning algorithms of facial expression recognition and attention tracking will be used in the back end of our FECTS system, which will enable real-time monitoring of the autistic children's imitation quality and interest. A total of ten Chinese autistic children aged 3-8 were recruited, and each of them received a single 20-minute training session every day for four days.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9213526


Effectiveness of psychological techniques in dental management for children with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic literature review

Abstract Background: The rise in the number of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder has sparked an increase in the number of children with the disorder, according to the need for dental specialists to be more familiar with the treatment techniques to ensure safe, well-accepted, and efficient management while in the dental office. Aim This paper was intended to provide you with a deeper understanding of some of the most effective and safe ways to care for children with ASD in dental settings. Original full-text papers including randomised controlled trials and all other non-randomised controlled studies demonstrating valid intervention studies in English were accepted without any publication time limit. Conclusion Our review found no conclusive evidence on the strengths of new psychological and non-pharmacological techniques used to help children with ASD in dental settings. Nonetheless, this report contained valuable information on some recent efforts to increase our knowledge of how to properly care for children with ASD for dental professionals.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-022-02200-7


Contributing factors to healthcare costs in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review

Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder are more likely to use healthcare than those with disabilities, which means higher healthcare expenses to families and health services are involved. This research sought to find healthcare costs and its determinants among people with ASD. The largest part of direct medical spending on people with ASD was determined by therapeutic interventions, outpatient visits, and medications. According to the included studies, ASD patients' lack of health care, associated morbidities, more severe signs, younger age groups, and lower socioeconomic status are associated with higher medical expenditure in individuals with ASD. Conclusions This systematic review found a variety of causes, including lower SES and a lack of health care, which are both linked to higher healthcare costs in people with ASD. Our study finds that policy options can be developed to reduce financial risks in families of individuals with ASD in countries that do not have a tax-based or universal health care system.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-022-07932-4


Evaluation of an artificial intelligence-based medical device for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder

Abstract Autism spectrum disorder can be reliably diagnosed at 18 months, but significant diagnostic delays persist in the United States. This double-blinded, multi-site, prospective, and running comparator cohort review investigated the use of an artificial intelligence-based software as a Medical Device intended to aid primary care healthcare providers in diagnosing ASD. The Device incorporates behavioral characteristics from three distinct inputs in a gradient-boosted decision tree machine learning algorithm to produce either an ASD positive, ASD negative, or indeterminate output. This analysis compared Device outputs to diagnostic agreement by two or more independent experts in a cohort of 18–72-month-olds with developmental delay issues. All study participants had an 80. 8% PPV and a 98. 3% NPV. Device sensitivity was 98. 4% and specificity was 78. 9% for the 31. 8% of participants who received a definitive result.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41746-022-00598-6


The electroretinogram b-wave amplitude: a differential physiological measure for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Reduction of retinal responses in ASD has been reported, but no information regarding retinal function in ADHD has been found. To determine whether retinal responses differ between these neurodevelopmental conditions, we compared the light-adapted ERGs of people with ADHD, ASD, and controls in this study. Result Achievement Compared to both the control and ASD groups, statistically significant amplitudes, PhNR responses, and faster times of the b-wave time-to-peak were found in those with ADHD. At 1. 204 log phot cd. s. m. flash amplitudes related to ADHD, the largest increase in the b-wave amplitudes associated with ADHD was recorded at 1. 204 log phot cd. s. m. , at which the amplitude in ASD was much lower than that in the controls. Conclusions The ERG b-wave amplitude appears to be a distinct difference between ADHD and ASD, which results in a changed pattern of b-wave responses.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s11689-022-09440-2


The Altered Pattern of the Functional Connectome Related to Pathological Biomarkers in Individuals for Autism Spectrum Disorder Identification

Currently, the use of a functional brain network is deemed important for extracting data on brain imaging biomarkers. paraphrasedoutput:MethodsHowever, we recommend a combination of the results obtained from both FBN and its related graph theory tests to identify and distinguish ASD from normal controls. Conclusions: The graph theoretical study reveals that the real nodal graph measurements and consensus connections exist mostly in the salience network, default mode network, frontoparietal network, and social network.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.913377


Cerebellar Volumes and Sensorimotor Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder

paraphrasedoutput:ResultsEthical to TD controls: Individuals with ASD increased force variability, saccade error, and saccade error variability were investigated in relation to each cerebellar area of concern, as well as saccade error, and saccade error, were all examined. ASD symptom sensitivity was associated with higher right lobule VIII and cerebellar white matter volumes, as well as reduced right lobule VI and right lobule X volumes. In males, increased ASD symptom severity were found in right Crus II/lobule VIIB, mainly males, while females' reduced numbers of right Crus II/lobule VIIB can be attributed to increased stress and repetitive behaviours. Conclusion: The study that showed that sensory feedback processing aided by Crus I may have contributed to increased force variability in ASD can lead to increased ASD severity, suggests that sensory feedback processing disruption in ASD can lead to greater ASD Multiple developmental difficulties in ASD can be related to multiple developmental difficulties in ASD, owing to correlations between volumes of cerebellar subregions and ASD symptom severity.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2022.821109

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions