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Antimicrobial Resistance - Europe PMC

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Last Updated: 03 July 2022

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Nanodelivery of essential oils as efficient tools against antimicrobial resistance: a review of the type and physical-chemical properties of the delivery systems and applications.

Essential oils alone in therapy are not always possible due to several limitations, but nanodelivery techniques seem to be able to solve these problems. Although many studies on EOs exist, this report examines the physical characteristics of the neote oil delivery system, as well as the effect on the functionality of nanodelivered essential oils and successful applications. Essential details, such as the time and availability of a potential bacteria resistance to these new methods and estimates on stability, release, and efficacy of the nanodelivered EOs are still missing today, including the rate of emergence of a potential bacteria resistance to these new techniques and humans is also missing today.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35363104


Unpacking Multi-Level Governance of Antimicrobial Resistance Policies: the Case of Guangdong, China.

China has adopted a state-governed, multi-level, top-down regulatory framework for antimicrobial resistance against the backdrop of universal healthcare coverage and pre-existing legislation on antimicrobial use. This report aims to explain how Guangdong, a province, implements national AMR policies in a tightly managed public policy framework and a high unemployment market. In China, our findings show that the emphasis and policies on antimicrobial use control have heightened.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35775460


Biological units of antimicrobial resistance and strategies for their containment in animal production.

The most commonly suggested treatment to minimize selection pressure for resistant bacterial strains and resistance genes is to restrict the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, aiming to limit the use for antibiotic use in animal agriculture. We provide examples that illustrate how a more comprehensive strategy is required to combat antimicrobial resistance in agroecosystems on both directions, as well as biological research involving systematic approaches to infectious disease agents and biodiversity destruction. We're comparing parallels from systems to infectious disease agents and biodiversity destruction, but we show that a more holistic strategy is required. Antimicrobial resistance mitigation tools for animal agriculture, which include a variety of technologies, may be useful ecosystem-level steps to reduce antimicrobial resistance. We expect that antimicrobial resistance mitigation efforts for animal agriculture using several technologies would be effective ecosystem-level interventions that would eliminate antimicrobial resistance.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35587376


Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica from Head Meat and Trim for Ground Product at Pork Processing Facilities.

During harvesting and manufacturing, abstract Pork head meat may contain Salmonella and contaminate other carcass by-products. Salmonella enterica isolate from cheek meat and head trim of swine carcasses was tested bimonthly for 11 months to determine the concentration, frequency, seasonality, serotype variety, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica strain in the United States. Each collection contained 25 samples from two days in the morning and afternoon shifts for a total of 100 cheek meat samples and 100 head trim samples per month. The prevalence of Salmonella postenrichment did not differ between cheek meat and head trim. Several MDR Salmonella isolates were expressing resistance genes blaCARB, blaSHV, blaM, tr, obt, sul2, and dfrA. According to the findings, pork products from the head may have a relatively high incidence of Salmonella from the head, relative to those reported for carcasses, as well as varied serotypes and MDR.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35499403


Uses of mathematical modeling to estimate the impact of mass drug administration of antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance within and between communities.

Effects of antibiotic use on childhood mortality can be vital and inexpensive to measure, especially when evaluating resistance that ranges from antibiotic-treated individuals to other members of their families are difficult to determine, particularly when evaluating resistance that varies from antibiotic-treated individuals to other members of their community. The goal of this scoping report was to determine how the existing literature on antibiotic resistance modeling could be used to analyze antibiotic resistance in a more comprehensive way. The following text is a summary of current findings and guiding future experimental research. Mathematical models of antibiotic use and resistance can be useful for estimating the effects of various MDA experiments on diverse populations, as well as assisting in the interpretation of existing data and guiding future experimental design. While being able to more accurately assess the effects of various MDA-based resistance strategies, Mechanistic models of resistance, although being able to more accurately assess the effects of various MDA-based resistance strategies, could require further data from MDA trials to be more accurate.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35773748


Environmental impacts of mass drug administration programs: exposures, risks, and mitigation of antimicrobial resistance.

However, with antimicrobial use becoming a global crisis, the dangers posed by widespread antimicrobial use must be assessed. As the role of the environment in AMR creation and dissemination has become increasingly understood, it is also crucial to identify MDA involvement in environmental AMR pollution, as well as the potential consequences of such pollution. This paper explores the current state of knowledge on antimicrobial compounds, resistant organisms, and antimicrobial resistance genes in MDA studies, routes of these determinants' transfer into the environment, and environmental implications, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where these trials are most common. It is becoming clear that MDA efforts would boost carriage and excretion of resistant pathogens in a long manner, from the few studies examining AMR results in azithromycin MDA trials.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35773680


Metaphylactic antimicrobial effects on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. measured longitudinally from feedlot arrival to harvest in high-risk beef cattle.

Methods and results Two arrival date blocks of high-risk crossbred beef cattle were randomly assigned 1 of four antimicrobial treatments administered on d 0: sterile saline control; ceftiofur; or florfenicol. On d 238 and at harvest on d 239, respectively, Hide swabs and subiliac lymph nodes were collected on d 238 and subdivial lymph nodes, which were discarded on d 238 and harvested on d 239; respectively. On d 238, Tulathromycin resulted in higher incidence and prevalence of Salmonellaella faeces than CON. On d 238 than CON, Tulathromycin and CEF demonstrated higher Salmonella hide prevalence and higher incidences of 128ERY R E. coli on d 238. Ceftiofur was associated with higher incidences of 8ERY R Enterococcus spp. Compared to CON, antimicrobial use did not raise incidence or counts for any other bacterial species by d 238, among other bacterial species. Antimicrobial resistance in feedlot cattle is not primarily attributed to the use of a metaphylactic antimicrobial on arrival, but more likely a combination of environmental and management variables.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35766106


The Opportunity of Point-of-Care Diagnostics in General Practice: Modelling the Effects on Antimicrobial Resistance.

Objectives Antimicrobial resistance is a public health risk related to antibiotic consumption. A key factor in primary care is community-acquired acute respiratory tract infections. We wanted to quantify the investment required for a large-scale rollout of point-of-care diagnostic testing in Dutch primary care, as well as the effects on AMR as a result of reduced use of antibiotics. Methods We developed an individual-based model that simulates CA-ARTI at GP practices in the Netherlands, and compared a situation where GPs test all CA-ARTI patients with a hypothetical diagnostic approach, with a hypothetical diagnostic approach to keep the current standard-of-care in the years 2020-2030. Conclusions Our findings show that implementing a hypothetical diagnostic system for all CA-ARTI patients in primary care raises the costs of consultations, as well as decreasing antibiotic use and AMR.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35764913


The occurrence of antimicrobial residues and antimicrobial resistance genes in urban drinking water and sewage in Southern Brazil.

Antimicrobial resistance is increasingly discussed internationally, and the presence of antimicrobial residues and antimicrobial resistance genes in the environment, especially in the water sources, poses a challenge to public health. In Southern Brazil, this research was conducted to determine the presence and diversity of AR and ARG in water sources from urban center. During two annual samplings, both winter and summer, thirty-two water samples from drinking water treatment plants and sewage systems were collected. We just found bla TEM and tetB genes and doxycycline residues in samples before treatment, which was in drinking water.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/MED/35764766


Hospital Perinatal Transmission Dynamics of Antimicrobial Resistance, Bangladesh, 2020

Antimicrobial resistance is a significant global health threat that contributes to significant neonatal mortality in the United States. AMR-related bacteria that causes neonatal sepsis in Bangladesh have been shown to have some of the highest AMR prevalences in bacteria causing neonatal sepsis. We wanted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for AMR colonization of mothers and newborns during hospitalization for delivery to help determine the source of AMR transmission to newborns. 177 pregnant women who were presenting for transfer to a tertiary care hospital in Faridpur, Bangladesh, were enrolled by February-October 2020. On display and after delivery, we received swabs of mothers, as well as rectal swabs from newborns. We also obtained swabs from the hospital environment proximal to the patients. Prior to delivery, 17% of mothers had vaginal colonization and 71% had rectal colonization with ESBLs; 71% had rectal colonization with ESBLs; 41% had vaginal colonization, and 13% had rectal colonization with CROs; and 13% had rectal colonization with CROs; 17% had rectal colonization; and 17% had rectal colonization; and 13% had rectal colonization; and 13% had rectal colonization with CROs During hospitalization, ninety-eight percent of women were given prophylactic antibiotics.

Source link: https://europepmc.org/article/PPR/PPR511133

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions