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A large number of small animal models that mimic genetic variations present in the affected individuals have been created thanks to the discovery of genetic mutations responsible for neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the unique characteristics of large animals to model neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the difficulties and challenges in creating large animal models of neurodegenerative disease, with a focus on Huntington disease, Amyotrophic sclerosis, and Parkinson disease. We also discuss how to make rodent models more suitable for recapitulating key pathological characteristics of neurodegenerative diseases.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13238-022-00912-8
Proteins from the Shank family are enriched in the postsynaptic mass of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. A growing body of genetic association and animal model studies has shown a correlation between SHANK gene mutations and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this series, we first summarize the current knowledge of the SHANK family genes and their encoded protein products.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10571-021-01054-x
When an object coupled with a food unconditioned stimulus is mixed with a food unconditioned stimulus, anticipation-driven action at the U. S. location is followed by behavior directed at the object CS. Rats in the Sprague-Dawley household environment and at a rate higher than adolescent standard-housed rats are able to achieve a 5% ethanol bottle CS in their household environment and at a higher rate than adolescent standard-housed rats. We also show that enriched adolescent rats appear less on track than enriched adult-trained rats, and that acute loneliness stress promotes adolescents' and adult-tracking results in a variety of ways. The adults' goal tracking increased after the final stressor manipulation, although the younger rats showed a decrease in goal tacking after the final stressor manipulation. Testing in an enhanced home environment with object CSs having greater affordability than u201cneutral lever CSs may have greater ecological value for investigating translational research's development and expression of adaptive and compulsive behaviors.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00897-7
The difference between energy intake and exercise energy expenditure is clearly defined by energy availability. Reduction of EA has been linked to abnormalities of reproduction system and severe bone loss in several female athletes, and it is often described as female athlete triad. The condition of female athletes but also male athletes is considered a serious issue, and leaner is also affecting other organs other than reproductive ones, and reproductive system dysfunction leads to dysfunction of various organs other than reproductive.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00223-022-00983-z
In recent years, the number of mammalian animals that have been killed for research has risen sharply. Two phases of calcium phosphate synthesis by sol-gel method were added by precipitation to the surface of the natural rubber latex membranes for bone applications in this research. In vitro assays, cell viability, hemolysis; and in vivo models using Caenorhabditis elegans worms and zebrafish embryos for survival analysis were tested by toxic eluates from the membrane. Except for a hydroxyapatite sample incubated for 5 days, the eluates of membranes did not influence the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae for 48 hours of analysis. In the zebrafish embryotoxicity assay for 96 hpf of analysis, 60% of embryos survived, but there were no traces of embryos with malformation or developmental delay.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-022-02438-w
Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disorder that results in the loss of u03b1-motoneurons and muscle atrophy. We discussed its positive influence on the SMN2 exon 7 splicing in SMA patient-derived skin cells and its ability to raise the SMN protein level. In additional SMA cellular and animal models, we'll concentrate on moxifloxacin's therapeutic potential. By increasing the SMN2 splicing process, we show that moxifloxacin helps muscle cells and motoneurons suffer the SMA-related molecular and phenotypical deficiencies in muscle cells and motoneurons. In addition, we have shown that daily subcutaneous injections of moxifloxacin in a severe SMA murine model reduces its characteristic neuroinflammation and raises the SMN levels in various organs, resulting in improved motor skills and longer lifespan. Moxifloxacin, which was originally intended as an antibiotic, can be repositioned for SMA therapy, according to our reports.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-022-04450-8
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide. The Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanocomposite is a popular bio-nanomaterial for numerous biological applications. In animal models, the aim of this study was to determine Fe_3O_4/Cs' anticancer activity against HCC. During a period of ten weeks to cause HCC and then receiving Fe_3O_4/Cs intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight three times a week for a period of four weeks, Rats have received diethylnitrosamine orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight 5 times a week.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-022-03221-7
Background and Aim The success of partial donor liver transplantation is affected by the transplant site of the donor liver and the vascular reconstruction strategy. Methods Sixty male Sprague u2013Dawley rats underwent end-to-end anastomosis of the donor liver portal vein and the right renal artery stent, or end-to-side anastomosis of the donor liver portal vein and the left common iliac artery. Conclusions The updated kidney-sparing PVA system of heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation is more suitable for liver transplantation, leading to liver transplantation with faster recovery of liver function.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12893-022-01726-5
Iron oxide nanoparticles contain the majority of the desirable characteristics that make them suitable for multifunctional NPs used in a variety of biocompatible nanoparticles. The determination of protein corona in various proximal fluids has been investigated in vitro biocompatibility by proteomics characterization. In addition, protein labeling and MS/MS analysis revealed more than 4000 proteins de novo synthetized as a result of the nanodrugs' presence in various tumor cell types. Conclusions Pharmacological proteomic profile differs among species and different affinity of protein coating layers. In addition, intracellular signaling revealed differences between tumor cell lines tested. The ability of theses NPs as drug delivery systems is demonstrated by first experiments in animal model, as well as the confirmation of cisplatin compounds as improved antitumoral agents.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12951-022-01546-y
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