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Allopurinol - Springer Nature

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Last Updated: 10 August 2022

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HLA-B*58:01 screening to prevent allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease

We want to see if pre-treatment HLA-58:01 screening could help Chinese patients with CKD and its cost-effectiveness. Patients with HLA-B*58:01 were refused allopurinol, while those who were negative were given allopurinol. The prevalence of SCARs in the HLA screening group was compared to the previous 5-year cohorts, and the cost-effectiveness of HLA testing was determined. 3605 patients on allopurinol were tested, 22 out of 1027 CKD Chinese patients newly started on allopurinol-derived SCARs, including 6 SJS/TEN, were screened, including 6 SJS/TEN. 28 out of 192 patients tested HLA-B*58:01 positive were recommended to avoid allopurinol; 156 out of 164 HLA-B*58:01-negative patients received allopurinol; none developed SCARs. Compared to no HLA screening, the targeted HLA screening procedure was associated with reduced healthcare expenses relative to no HLA screening.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-021-02258-3


Cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with hyperuricemia treated with febuxostat or allopurinol: a retrospective nation-wide cohort study in Austria 2014–2017

Patients with hyperuricemia and gout are at an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of the xanthine oxidase has inhibited the production of urate lowering therapy by using allopurinol or febuxostat. However, it has been shown that febuxostat raises the risk of CV death relative to allopurinol. The aim of this retrospective cohort analysis was to determine whether or not patients with febuxostat or allopurinol therapy had CV risk. Patients who started urate lowering therapy with febuxostat or allopurinol between 2014 and 2017 were chosen from the Austrian health insurance industry's drug reimbursement database. According to a comparison with allopurinol, febuxostat initiators are at an elevated risk of nonfatal CV events or death from any cause.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-022-05139-8


Azathioprine with Allopurinol Is a Promising First-Line Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

BACKGROUND The adverse reaction to first-line immunosuppressive azathioprine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is poor due to the high incidence of adverse events. Aim Retrospective analysis of long-term safety and safety of first-line low-dose azathioprine-allopurinol co-therapy in patients with IBD without metabolite monitoring. In total, 166 LDAA and 118 AZAm patients were evaluated. At 6 months, 12 months, and long-term, clinical improvement was more apparent in LDAA patients at 6 months, 12 months, and in the long run. Patients in the AZAm series were 60% more likely to miss therapy due to a higher intolerance rate. In AZAm patients, only 73% of the active AZA dose was accepted, while LDAA could be introduced and maintained at its target dose. In 5/6 LDAA patients with hepatotoxicity, increasing allopurinol from 100 to 200 mg/day significantly reduced liver enzymes. Conclusions Our poor AZAm findings show that optimisation of azathioprine is required.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-07273-y


The Prospective Effect of Allopurinol on the Oxidative Stress Index and Endothelial Dysfunction in Covid-19

The present research, which was funded herein, was designed to determine the potential protective effects of allopurinol on the biomarkers of OS and ED in patients with severe Covid-19 syndrome. Compared to 41 patients with severe Covid-19, this single-center cohort study recruited 39 patients with mild-moderate Covid-19 among 39 patients with moderately Covid-19, compared to 41 patients with severe Covid-19. Compared to 22 Covid-19 patients not on this therapy, nineteen patients with severe Covid-19 were on the allopurinol therapy because of underlying chronic diarrhea three years ago. Patients were divided into three groups: group I, mild-moderate Covid-19 on the standard therapy; group II, acute Covid-19 patients on the hospital only; and group III, severe Covid-19 patients on the standard therapy plus allopurinol ; and group III, acute Covid-19 patients on the standard therapy plus allopurinol. Compared to Covid-19 patients on standard therapy, Allopurinol plus standard therapy reduced LDH, ferritin, CRP, progitonin, and ET-1 serum levels by a significant percentage. Besides, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and neutrophilu2013lymphocyte ratios in patients with acute Covid-19 on standard therapy plus allopurinol were reduced in patients with severe Covid-19 on acute Covid-19 on chronic treatment plus allopurinol, as well as Covid-19 patients on standard therapy alone. At admission, the incidence of patients with severe Covid-19 than moderately Covid-19 patients was higher in patients with severe Covid-19 than mild-moderate Covid-19 patients. The oxidative status of Covid-19 patients at the time of discharge was significantly elevated compared to that at admission. In conclusion, Covid-19 sensitivity is attributed to elevated OS and inflammatory reaction with ED development. Patients with severe Covid-19 have elevated blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers, which is correlated with elevated OS and inflammatory biomarkers. With significant improvement in ED and clinical outcomes, Allopurinol with standard therapy in patients with severe Covid-19 reduced oxidative and inflammatory disorders with significant improvement of ED and clinical outcomes.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-022-01648-7


Thermodynamic Analysis for the Solubility of Allopurinol in Aqueous and Non-aqueous Mixtures at Various Temperatures

The solubility of allopurinol was determined at various temperatures in ethanol, acetate, and ethyl acetate mixtures at u2013hexane mixtures. Both solubility maxima against the cosolvent ratio at each of the five temperatures tested are shown in Figure 2. The authors correlated the solubility results in binary solvent mixtures at various temperatures using a modified version of the Jouyban–u2013Acree model. The an enthalpy calculation indicates a non-linear enthalpy relationship in plots of enthalpy vs. Gibbs' energy of solution, i. e. , two distinct mechanisms involved in the solubility improvement.

Source link: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10765-022-03061-6

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions

* Please keep in mind that all text is summarized by machine, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always check original source before taking any actions