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Soils are significant HONO emitters, but soil and relative contributions are not well defined, and soil/element interactions are unevenly limited. To determine HONO emission fluxes and pathways in Finland, we perform 15 N tracer experiments and isotope pool dilution assays on two types of agricultural soils. In high organic matter soil, only HONO was obtained by Microbial ammonium oxidation. Our results show that microbial nitrate reduction is an important HONO production pathway in aerobic soils, implying that terrestrial ecosystems supporting it could be HONO emission hotspots, thus changing atmospheric chemistry.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43247-021-00125-7
Abstract The rapid consumption of biological products in extraction, processing, storage, reuse, and landfill have raised concerns of the urgent need to update Europe's existing methods and attitudes toward the consumption of biological resources in production, processing, storage, reuse, and disposal. One of the key elements of the European Green Deal is to make the EU economy's economic growth sustainable. The fuzzy cognitive maps modelling method was used to compare different production process steps in order to determine which of them best meets the desired sustainability objectives. According to four requirements (u2013), economic, socioeconomic, and technological aspects, Alternatives to 16 bio-products are evaluated using the FCM method and the Mental Modeller software, according to four criteria. Obtained findings are reliable and objectively represent the FCM's validity, and their use of this type of integrated analysis is appropriate to compare the various production methods investigated in the study.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.2478/rtuect-2022-0052
Abstract The ability to produce defect-free 2D sheets with high aspect ratios is needed for bulk functional applications due to the availability of two-dimensional materials. Despite significant research findings, new bulk exfoliation techniques necessitate a compromise between the consistency of the final flakes and their lateral size, limiting the product's effectiveness. A thin layer of flakes that are stable in a variety of polar solvents is created by a mixture of chlorosulfuric acid intercalation and in situ pyrene sulfonate functionalization.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41699-021-00215-2
Abstract A multi-product refinery for ethanol and lactic acid production from the biomass of cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis was investigated with the intention of maximizing recovery of bulk and specialty bioproducts while minimizing waste generation. The maximum concentrations obtained by the MN process were 3. 02 g/L of BE by the MN process at 120 rpm 30 rpm 30 rpm 30 nb01C, and 9. 67 g/L of LA by the SF process at 120 rpm 37 00b0C. An economic investigation of BE and LA production was carried out to clarify the consequences of fermentation scale, fermenter costs, production titer, fermentation time, and cyanobacterial biomass production cost. FIG 1. 27 and U. S. $ 0. 39, respectively, for BE and LA, respectively, supporting the theory of cyanobacterium biomass being used for fermentation and subsequent extraction to extract ethanol and lactic acid as end products from A. platensis.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97803-5
HA is naturally synthesized by a class of integral membrane proteins called Hyaluronic acid synthase. The manufacturing of HA through recombinant methods has attracted significant attention lately. Plants are eco-friendly ideal expression systems for biopharmaceuticals production. The optimized human hyaluronic acid synthase2 sequence was converted into Nicotiana tabacum by Agrobacterium rhizogenes in this research. By the human HAS2 ELISA kit, the highest rhHAS2 concentration of 65. 72 ng/kg in transgenic tobacco hairy roots was determined. The HA production in the transgenic hairy roots was determined by scanning electron microscope and quantified by the HA ELISA kit, according to the HA. Maximum daily activity of 46 percent was shown by the DPPH radical scavenging activity of HA with the highest concentration of 0. 56 g/kg. The high molecular weight HA was discovered by chromatography tests, resulting in the formation of the high molecular weight HA of about >0. 8 MDa.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97139-0
The water content of the lipid system increased dramatically as a byproduct of oxidation, according to monitoring the amount of water production as a byproduct of oxidation. During the oxidation, the number of reverse micelles increased gradually, but two breakpoints were pointed out in the micelles' expansion, i. e. Compared to ethyl-ferulate and u03b3-oryzanol, ferulic acid had the highest antioxidant activity based on the kinetic results. Generally, lecithin promoted antioxidant activity by increasing antioxidant resistance's interfacial results.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96439-9
The reaction was carried out with remarkable success using NiPc@GO/TiO 2, while TiO 2 promoted the reaction under visible light using each of NiPc and GO under apparent light, but TiO 2 promoted the reaction using both NiPc and GO under visible light. GO minimized TiO 2's band gap by contributing to its Fermi levels and NiPc's rise in the photocatalytic reaction rate as a sensitizing agent in this reaction.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-95382-z
Abstract The synthesis of non-natural peptides and chiral materials is achieved by a cyclic phosphorus dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, according to u03b2-amino acid. Lzh-T5 is a P. chlororaphis strain isolated from tomato rhizosphere found in China's Lzh-T5 strain isolated from tomato rhizosphere found in China. The phzF gene of P. chlororaphis Lzh-T5 is responsible for DHHA accumulation, according to Disruption. In this research, three regulatory genes were altered in P. chlororaphis Lzh-T5's genome, resulting in 5. 52 g/L of DHHA. Lastly, a new amount of Fe 3+ was added to the medium for DHHA fermentation. According to our analysis, P. chlororaphis Lzh-T5 may be modified as a microbial factory to produce DHHA.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94674-8
Abstract Five coal samples collected from Chinese coal-producing areas were oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and humic acids were extracted from original coal and its oxidization samples. The oxidation of H 2 O 2 in Yimin lignite would obviously raise the carboxyl group content of HAs, thereby encouraging nitrogen adsorption. This research revealed that oxidation of coal using H 2 O 2 was one pretreatment technique to obtain and modify HAs, which could be used as a prerequisite and functional material in the agricultural field.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94949-0
Abstract Indole-3-acetic acid is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class, and it regulates various plant growth processes. The present research investigated IAA production by the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-CP293 using the one-factor-at-time technique and response surface method. In addition, we investigated the effects of crude IAA on weed growth. According to the results, weed growth could be limited by 50 mg/L crude IAA. IAA therefore has the ability to be produced as a herbicidal bioproduct to replace the chemical herbicides that have been outlawed in several countries, including Thailand.
Source link: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92305-w
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